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Annex to Evaluators Final Report, Evaluation of SDC s Contribution towards Biodiversity. Impact in the Andean Region,Commissioned by the Corporate Controlling Section. of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC. Bern Switzerland March 31st 2009,Le Groupe conseil baastel s p r l. alain lafontaine baastel be, Evaluation was prepared by the Le Groupe Conseil baastel s p r l. Alain Lafontaine Evaluation Team Leader,Jorge Elgegren National Consultant.
Dr Mario Baudoin National Consultant,Dr Eduardo Fuentes International Consultant. Table of contents,Annex A Revised Approach Paper 1. Annex B Detailed Evaluation Matrix 21, Annex C Questionnaire for government SDC staff programme staff donors 28. Annex D Questionnaire for local organisations 32,Annex E Questionnaire for focus groups 34. Annex F Project programme Title Translation 35,Annex G Tables 36.
Annex H References 42, Annex I People interviewed in Bern by Alain Lafontaine 52. Annex A Revised Approach Paper,EVALUATION,SDC s Contributions towards Biodiversity. Impact in the Andean Region, 1 Background Biodiversity in SDC and in the Andean Region 2. 2 Why an Evaluation and Why Now Rationale 7,3 Purpose Focus and Objectives 7. 3 1 Purpose 7,3 2 Focus and Scope 7,3 3 Objectives 8.
4 Key Questions 9,4 1 Relevance 9,4 2 Impacts 10,5 Recommendations 12. 6 Expected Results 13,6 1 At Output Level 13,6 2 At Outcome Level 13. 7 Partners 13,7 1 Organisational Set up and Respective Roles 13. 8 Process 14,8 1 Methodology and Approach 14,8 2 Main steps Schedule 16. 8 3 Evaluation Team 16,9 Reference Documents 17,9 1 SDC and Related 17.
9 2 Other Publications 17,9 3 Resource Persons 17, 1 Background Biodiversity in SDC and in the Andean Region. Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial. marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part. this includes diversity within species between species and of ecosystems CDB art 2. To deal with inter linkages of various natures existing at many levels of biodiversity and to. reverse the crucial trend of biodiversity degradation is a major challenge for governments. institutions and science Meeting the challenge is crucial for the future of human societies on. earth Several international Conventions 1 Agreements and international Conferences. directly refer to the preservation of species and ecosystems Commitments have been made. to stopping the degradation processes The multilateral nature of these agreements. corresponds to the nature of the challenge of genes species and ecosystem preservation It. is a crosscutting concern which touches upon many sectors of nature and human activity and. establishes links at the local level and between distant regions. Biodiversity is in itself a resource and a service which can play a major role in poverty. alleviation Biodiversity underpins the ecosystem services that all people ultimately depend. on at all levels from the individual to the global rich and poor alike When considered from. the perspective of poor people the local level of biodiversity is important the distribution and. abundance of wild species the range of crop plants and livestock and the diversity of. ecosystem types directly available to them Biodiversity provides benefits to rural but also to. urban poor Although the majority of the world s poor currently live in rural areas where they. are more directly dependent on ecosystem services for their wellbeing the rapidly growing. proportion that live in urban and peri urban areas are also ultimately dependent on. ecosystem services both locally and at a distance, With the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992 biodiversity was. given a structured framework the Convention on Biological Diversity CBD providing 3. major elements conservation of biodiversity the sustainable use of natural resources and. the equitable sharing of access and benefits ABS Negotiations are still ongoing to have an. agreed instrument but the interests between North and South are difficult to bring together. Recently with the world concern about climate change the importance of many ecosystems. and the diversity of species have been recognised as key elements both for mitigation and. adaptation strategies, Within the Swiss Constitution the maintenance of biodiversity and the preservation of. ecosystems services is globally recognized as a pillar of sustainable development. Switzerland has recognised relatively early the importance of ecosystems services such as. forest ecosystems as well as the need of biodiversity in agriculture Based on this national. expertise and experience forest sustainable use and watershed protection have received. particular attention in particular in Latin America and to a lesser extend in Asia In the agro. biodiversity sector a particular emphasis has been put for many years on agro biodiversity. through the CGIAR centres as this has a direct link with the issue of poverty reduction. UN Convention on Biological Diversity Ramsar Convention the International Treaty on Plant Genetic. Resources for Food and Agriculture Rio conference 1992 WSSD Johannesburg 2002 conference etc. Transboundary cooperation and ecosystem approach have been promoted for the last 6. years directly or through the Integrated water resource management IWRM instruments. Like many agencies as a result of the Rio Conference Switzerland has contributed directly. to the Global Environment Facility GEF and in addition SDC has integrated biodiversity. issues in its own programme by setting up a special fund Global Environment Programme. to assist the partner countries to implement the Rio conventions SDC has not defined a. particular strategy on biodiversity nor particular goals biodiversity is often embedded in other. SDC instruments such as promotion of livelihood programmes rural development etc. Within SDC and taking into consideration the Andean context two main financial instruments. can be identified Bilateral contribution and Thematic contribution. In the bilateral following a concentration process within the GEP SDC has decided to. contribute more precisely to the Biodiversity Convention by concentrating 70 of its financial. means on two specific countries Laos and Bolivia with as guiding principle the DAC. guidelines Integrating the Rio Conventions into Development Cooperation Other related. documents have been made available to SDC staff members These are not SDC. documents but existing instruments produced by others Agencies such as DFID IUCN and. European Commission 2, Within the thematic division SDC Environment division NRE Biodiversity is treated in the. Medium term strategy within two main themes Agriculture and Environment Strategic. emphasis has been given to, Support of partners initiatives to intensify productivity maintaining and diversifying.
genetic biodiversity, Preservation of ecosystem services and the management of natural habitats which. are rich in biological species diversity, Economic valuation of ecosystem services as innovation approach. Cross border approaches local national regional, Considering biodiversity and the Andean specificity cultural issues are important Respect. for biological diversity implies respect for human diversity The perceived separation between. biological diversity and cultural diversity obscures the reality that both diversities are mutually. reinforcing and mutually dependent Therefore today there is a wider understanding that. reduced diversity in its cultural and environmental dimensions poses a threat to global. stability and that it makes the world and its inhabitants increasingly vulnerable Cultural. diversity as a source of innovation creativity and exchange should be regarded as a. powerful guarantee of biodiversity, Recently SDC has been exploring the importance of fiscal tools incentives disincentives in. the context of sustainable development in general in collaboration with OECD Poverty. Environment Partnership network,Biodiversity in Development 2001.
SDC average yearly investments F M O E Budget in biodiversity related. projects and programme, Targets lines of action of CHF Inland waters Forest Mountain Drylands. SDC engagement on 1000 biodiversity biodiversity biodiversity biodiversity. Biodiversity, Promotion and conservation 3 000 Transboundary cooperation through GUP. of protected area ev programme Southern Eastern Africa Eastern. establishment of corridors 3 000 Europe Pelister and possibly Cohesion funds. between Pas Carpathian, Protection and status of 350 Bionet programme related to taxonomy. species diversity, Conservation use of 8 000 Major focus on agro biodiversity through core contribution to CGIAR. genetic diversity of crops and centres for maintenance of ex situ gene banks Global Trust fund. harvested species, Promotion of sustainable use 500 Pelister Karit Mali.
of biodiversity products Macedonia, Capacity of ecosystems to 800 For ts des pins Haiti. deliver goods are maintained Amazonian forests Condor. Maintain biological resources 10 000 Tangar Haor Agro Andean. that support livelihoods of Bangladesh biodiversity in forest. poor people Niger Ramsar Bolivia Peru Probona,sites Laos. Protected the rights of,indigenous access and,Transversally partially applied leadership seco 3. benefit sharing ABS,Technology transfer, Increase financial means 200 Payment for ecosystem services. research of innovative financial,instrument, Promotion of incentives 600 Greening of fiscal instruments in Pakistan Morocco development of.
values legal incentives for promotion biodiversity ELC Bonn. Promotion of global 2 000 Contribution to IUCN programme to act on UN programme World. governance integration of bank and other institutions as well as on the private sector. environmental concern, Promotion of monitoring 200 Promotion of ecological footprint multiple indicator in Africa and in the. instruments rest of the world, Information formation 600 Agro biodiversity 2008 Campaign on Potato Biodiversity 2010. capitalisation Initiative both on capitalisation and awareness programme. information on key publication related to environment and biodiversity. Greenfacts, Miscellaneous 6000 Several projects have mentioned relation to biodiversity. Total approx 35 250 Average annual contribution in CHF for Biodiversity. The total investment of SDC in biodiversity preservation is difficult to assess since it cuts. across many others sectors without a specific strategy Considering the Andean Region it is. estimated that up to 17 projects have worked since 1996 with a direct or indirect biodiversity. focus and have invested an approximate amount of CHF 152 millions in activities. The evaluation does not focus on projects programmes of SECO Nevertheless it is important to mention. that other agencies of the Swiss Government have been working on biodiversity in the Andean Region. The areas of SDC intervention on biodiversity in the Andean Region can be divided into the. following categories, Forestry practices and sustainable management such as Conservation of Forests in. the Andean Region, Rural development such as Conservation and Use of Andean Tubers.
Women s empowerment gender equality, General capacity building of institutions and individuals including training and. awareness raising on issues relevant to biodiversity. Additional Areas,Livelihood interventions,Soil and water conservation. Communities institution building,Good governance, SDC intervention on biodiversity in the Andean Region Peru Bolivia and Ecuador comprise. all the activities coordinated or implemented by different partners. Governments central and local,Local communities,NGOs local and international. Intercooperation,Multilateral organisation such as IUCN.
CGIAR research centres such the Centro Internacional de la Papa. Here below is some interesting information on the interlinkages between biodiversity and poverty in the Andean. Andean landscapes hence are the result of intellectual and spiritual constructs that are shaped by the. traditional practices and the newer uses given to them by the diverse cultures that inhabit them As components. of managing the broader cultural landscape novel approaches for the conservation of sacred sites offer insights. into the importance of human influence as the driver of global change as well as the importance of maintaining. and promoting local culture traditional knowledge and spiritual fulfilment in contemporary society Forman. 1995 Using Andean land use management practices as models allows us to generalize notions that unify. nature and culture as an integrative whole within a protected landscape as well as to link biodiversity and human. intervention as driving forces behind the nature culture interactions that produced the identities of Andean. mountain societies at large Brown and Mitchell 1999 Gade 1999 Brown Mitchell and Sarmiento 2000. The three main Andean regions along the continent long cordillera Northern Andes Central Andes and. Southern Andes differ according to their altitude humidity and topographic features being tropical evergreen in. the north dry and less vegetated in the centre and temperate deciduous in the south A key ecological feature in. the Andes is the existence of slope and fragile lands nested in young volcanic chains reaching several thousand. Annex to Evaluators Final Report Evaluation of SDC s Contribution towards Biodiversity Impact in the Andean Region Commissioned by the Corporate Controlling Section of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC Bern Switzerland March 31st 2009 Le Groupe conseil baastel s p r l alain lafontaine baastel be Evaluation was prepared by the Le Groupe Conseil baastel s p r l

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