An Introduction Social Psychology

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William McDougall 1871 1938,Originally published by Methuen Co Ltd. London 1919,This edition published by,Batoche Books. 52 Eby Street South,Kitchener Ontario,email batoche gto net. Preface to the Fourteenth Edition 5,Chapter I Introduction 13. Section I The Mental Characters of Man of Primary Importance for. His Life in Society 26, Chapter II The Nature of Instincts and Their Place in the Constitu.
tion of the Human Mind 26, Chapter III The Principal Instincts and the Primary Emotions of. Chapter IV Some General or Non Specific Innate Tendencies 69. Chapter V The Nature of the Sentiments and the Constitution of. Some of the Complex Emotions 90,Chapter VI The Development of the Sentiments 115. Chapter VII The Growth of Self consciousness and of the Self. Regarding Sentiment 124,Chapter VIII The Advance to the Higher Plane. of Social Conduct 148,Chapter IX Volition 160, Section II The Operation of the Primary Tendencies of the Human. Mind in the Life of Societies 184, Chapter X The Reproductive and the Parental Instincts 184.
Chapter XI The Instinct of Pugnacity 192,Chapter XII The Gregarious Instinct 203. Chapter XIII The Instincts through which Religious Conceptions. Affect Social Life 207, Chapter XIV The Instincts of Acquisition and Construction 218. Chapter XV Imitation Play and Habit 220,Supplementary Chapter I Theories of Action 237. Supplementary Chapter II The Sex Instinct 259, Supplementary Chapter III The Derived Emotions 285. Preface to the Fourteenth Edition, In this little book I have attempted to deal with a difficult branch of.
psychology in a way that shall make it intelligible and interesting to any. cultivated reader and that shall imply no previous familiarity with psy. chological treatises on his part for I hope that the book may be of ser. vice to students of all the social sciences by providing them with the. minimum of psychological doctrine that is an indispensable part of the. equipment for work in any of these sciences I have not thought it neces. sary to enter into a discussion of the exact scope of social psychology. and of its delimitation from sociology or the special social sciences for. I believe that such questions may be left to solve themselves in the course. of time with the advance of the various branches of science concerned. I would only say that I believe social psychology to offer for research a. vast and fertile field which has been but little worked hitherto and that. in this book I have attempted to deal only with its most fundamental. problems those the solution of which is a presupposition of all profit. able work in the various branches of the science, If I have severely criticised some of the views from which I dissent. and have connected these views with the names of writers who have. maintained them it is because I believe such criticism to be a great aid. to clearness of exposition and also to be much needed in the present. state of psychology the names thus made use of were chosen because. the bearers of them are authors well known for their valuable contribu. tions to mental science I hope that this brief acknowledgment may serve. as an apology to any of them under whose eyes my criticisms may fall. I owe also some apology to my fellow workers for the somewhat dog. matic tone I have adopted I would not be taken to believe that my utter. ances upon any of the questions dealt with are infallible or incapable of. 6 William McDougall, being improved upon but repeated expressions of deference and of the. sense of my own uncertainty would be out of place in a semi popular. work of this character and would obscure the course of my exposition. Although I have tried to make this book intelligible and useful to. those who are not professed students of psychology it is by no means a. mere dishing up of current doctrines for popular consumption and it. may add to its usefulness in the hands of professional psychologists if I. indicate here the principal points which to the best of my belief are. original contributions to psychological doctrine, In Chapter II I have tried to render fuller and clearer the concep. tions of instinct and of instinctive process from both the psychical and. the nervous sides, In Chapter III I have elaborated a principle briefly enunciated in a. previous work which is I believe of the first importance for the under. standing of the life of emotion and action the principle namely that. all emotion is the affective aspect of instinctive process The adoption. of this principle leads me to define emotion more strictly and narrowly. than has been done by other writers and I have used it as a guide in. attempting to distinguish the more important of the primary emotions. In Chapter IV I have combated the current view that imitation is to. be ascribed to an instinct of imitation and I have attempted to give. greater precision to the conception of suggestion and to define the prin. cipal conditions of suggestibility I have adopted a view of the most. simple and primitive form of sympathy that has been previously enunci. ated by Herbert Spencer and others and have proposed what seems to. be the only possible theory of the way in which sympathetic induction of. emotion takes place I have then suggested a modification of Professor. Groos s theory of play and in this connection have indulged in a specu. lation as to the peculiar nature and origin of the emulative impulse. In Chapter V I have elaborated the conception of a sentiment. which is a relatively novel one Since this is the key to all the construc. tive as contrasted with the more purely analytical part of the book I. desire to state as clearly as possible its relations to kindred conceptions. of other authors In the preface to the first edition of this book I attrib. uted the conception of the sentiments which was expounded in the text. to Mr A F Shand But on the publication of his important work on. The Foundations of Character in the year 1914 I found that the con. ception I had developed differed very importantly from his as expounded. at length in that work I had to some extent misinterpreted the very brief. An Introduction to Social Psychology 7, statements of his earlier publications and had read into them my own.
meaning Although I still recognise that Mr Shand has the merit of. having first clearly shown the need of psychology for some such con. ception I must in the interests of truth point out that my conception of. the sentiment and its relation to the emotion is so different from his as to. be in reality a rival doctrine rather than a development of it Looking. back I can now see that the germ of my conception was contained in. and derived by me from Professor Stout s chapter on Emotions in his. Manual of Psychology At the time of writing the book I was not. acquainted with the work of Freud and Jung and the other psycho ana. lysts And I have been gratified to find that the workers of this important. school approaching psychological problems from the point of view of. mental pathology have independently arrived at a conception which is. almost identical with my notion of the sentiment This is the conception. of the complex which now occupies a position of great importance in. psycho analytic literature Arrived at and still used mainly in the at. tempt to understand the processes at work in the minds of neurotic pa. tients it has been recognised by some recent writers on mental pathol. ogy notably Dr Bernard Hart that the complex or something very. like it is not a feature of mental structure confined to the minds of. neurotic patients and they are beginning to use the term in this wider. sense as denoting those structural features of the normal mind which I. have called sentiments It would I venture to suggest contribute to the. development of our psychological terminology if it could be agreed to. restrict the term complex to those pathological or morbid sentiments. in connexion with which it was first used and to use sentiment as the. wider more general term to denote all those acquired conjunctions of. ideas with emotional conative tendencies or dispositions the acquisition. and operating of which play so great a part both in normal and morbid. mental development, In Chapter V I have analysed the principal complex emotions in the. light of the conception of the sentiment and of the principle laid down in. Chapter II respecting the relation of emotion to instinct The analyses. reached are in many respects novel and I venture to think that though. they may need much correction in detail they have the merit of having. been achieved by a method very much superior to the one commonly. pursued the latter being that of introspective analysis unaided by any. previous determination of the primary emotions by the comparative. 8 William McDougall, In Chapters VI VII VIII and IX I have applied the doctrine of the. sentiments and the results reached in the earlier chapters to the descrip. tion of the organisation of the life of emotion and impulse and have. built upon these foundations an account which is more definite than any. other with which I am acquainted Attention may be drawn to the ac. count offered of the nature of active or developed sympathy but the. principal novelty contained in these chapters is what may perhaps with. out abuse of the phrase be called a theory of volition and a sketch of. the development of character conceived as consisting in the organisation. of the sentiments in one harmonious system, Of the heterogeneous assortment of ideas presented in the second. section of the book I find it impossible to say what and how much is. original No doubt almost all of them derive from a moderately exten. sive reading of anthropological and sociological literature. Since the original publication of this book I have added three supple. mentary chapters one on Theories of Action to the fifth edition in. 1912 one On the Sex Instinct to the eighth edition in 1914 and the. third on The Derived Emotions to the present edition These addi. tional chapters give the work I think more the character of a complete. treatise on the active side of man s nature a character at which I had not. aimed in the first instance for I aimed chiefly at setting out my own. views so far as they seemed to me to be novel and original I feel now. that yet another chapter is required to complete the work namely one on. habit and I hope to attempt this as soon as I may achieve some degree. of clearness on the subject in my own mind Since the first publication. of this book there have appeared several books dealing in part with the. same topics and offering some criticism of my views Of these I have. found three especially interesting namely Mr Shand s Foundations of. Character Professor Thorndike s Original Nature of Man and Dr. J Drever s Instinct in Man With Mr Shand s aims and with his ran. sacking of the poets for psychological evidence I have much sympathy. but I find myself at variance with him over many matters of fundamen. tal importance for the understanding of character He regards the emo. tions as highly complex innate dispositions within which the instincts. are organised as merely so many sensory motor dispositions to particu. lar bodily movements A second important difference is that he regards. the sentiments as innately organised systems of emotional dispositions. thus for him both love and hate are innate sentiments and each of them. consists of the dispositions of four emotions joy sorrow anger and. An Introduction to Social Psychology 9, fear linked together to form one system In my view the sentiments are. acquired through individual experience and where two or more emo. tional dispositions become conjoined in the structure of one sentiment. as when fear and anger are combined in the sentiment of hate we have. to regard these two dispositions as connected not directly with one an. other but only indirectly through the association of each with the par. ticular object of this particular sentiment of hatred Those are I think. the most deep lying differences between his view and mine but there. are many others which cannot be discussed here Some of these differ. ences have been set out and discussed in a symposium on Instinct and. the Emotions published in the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. for 1914 Those readers who are interested in contrasting these views. may find some assistance there Other differences are discussed at some. length in the new chapter which I have added to the present edition of. this book Mr Thorndike s view of the constitution of man differs from. mine in the opposite way from Mr Shand s While I postulate a few. great primary instincts each capable like those of the animals of prompt. ing and sustaining long trains of thought and action and while Mr. Shand postulate still more complex systems of innate dispositions such. as preformed sentiments of love and hate each comprising an array of. emotional dispositions and many instincts in his sense of the word. Mr Thorndike on the other hand lays it down that our innate constitu. tion consists of nothing more than a vast number of simple reflex ten. dencies How we are to conceive character and intellect as being built. up from such elements I utterly fail to grasp This multitude of reflexes. correspond to Mr Shand s many instincts these two authors then agree. An Introduction to Social Psychology William McDougall D Sc F R S Fellow of Corpus Christi College and Reader in Mental Philosophy in the University of Oxford Fourteenth Edition with Three Supplementary Chapters Batoche Books Kitchener 2001 William McDougall 1871 1938 Originally published by Methuen amp Co Ltd London 1919 This edition published by Batoche Books 52 Eby Street South

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