An historical narrative and topographical description of

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Digitized by the Internet Archive,in 2009 with funding from. University of Pittsburgh Library System, http www archive org details historicalnarratOOhutc. HISTORICAL NARRATIVE,Topographical DEscRiPTioNf,WES T F L Q R I i A. COMPREHENDING T I,RIVER MISSISSIPPI WITH its rincii al Branches. AND Settlements and th RIVERS PEARL,PASCAGOULA M0 1LLJE PERDIDO.
ESCAMBIA GHA TA HATCHA c,CLIMATB SOIL and PRODUCE,VT H E T H B R. ANIMAL VEGETABLE or MINERAL, Direttiohs for SaUing into all the Bays Lakes Harbours and Rivers o. the North Side of the Gulf of Mexico and for Navigating between the. Iflands fituatcd along that Coaft and afcenjing the MiflHIippi River. By THOMA S H U T C H I N S,GEOGRAPHER TOTHid uNITED states. PHILADELPHIA,printed for the author and sold by robert. jajtken near the c o f f e e h o u s e xn,Market street.
QEVERAL years refidence in the Province of Wefi,Florida during which I entered into a minute ex. amination of its cqajlsy harbours lakes and rivers. having made me perfe ly acquainted vjith their Jitua. tion bearings foundings and every particular requi. Jite to be knmun by Navigators for their benefit I am. induced to make my obfervations public The expence. and trouble at which this knowledge has been acquired. are far from inconfjderable hoivever if the accurate. furveys and defcriptions I am thereby enabled to give. prove infruclive and beneficial to my country I fJjall. efieem myfelf amply repaid,It may be proper to obferve that I have had the. cfjt lance of the remarks and furveys fo far as relates. to the mouths oj the MifiJJippi and and found, ings of Weft Florida of the late ingenious Mr George. Gauld a Gentleman who was employed by the Lords of. the Britifo Admiralty for the exprefs purpofe of making. an accurate chart of the abovementioned places, I have alfo had recourfe in dcfcribing fome parts of. the Mififfippi to the publication of CaptainFitma ti vjho. refided many years on that river and was well acquaint. ed with the counfry through which it flows,A particular detail of the advantages that may in.
time accrue to the pojfejfors of Weft Florida with a com. plete defcription of the country and its produ ions. iv ould not make an improper addition to the folhwing. ivork but as the more immediate purpofe of it is to. point out the dangers of its coajis to the approaching. TT arinerf I fhall confine the curfory remarks I make on. thofe heads tofuch particulars only as are mofl deferving. Before I enter on the profeciition of my defign I, ix30uld iift obferve that I fhall be more folicitous to make. the refult of my invefligations ifefulthan amufing I. hall endeavour rather to be clear and intelligible than. Jludy tQ deliver my elf in florid language,HISTORICAL. TOPOGRAPHICAL,DESCRIPTION c,A DESCRIPTION of the rlvqr Miffiffippi. and the country through whicn it flows,called Louifiana would have been the firft. obje ls fubraitted to the reader s attention were it not. humbly prefumed that a fhort account of the difco, very of the river Miffiflippi and a view of the differ.
ent States to which its banks have been fubjedled are. judged neceffary before their defcription is attempted. The merit of firft difcovering the river Mifliffippi Difcovery of. MiiCffippi,or in thelanguage of the natives Mefchafipi for. the general appellation of the former is a corruption. of the latter according to Lewis Hennepin s account. publifhed in London 1698 is due to the Sieur la,Salle who difcovered that river in 1602 It feenis. that father Hennepin forgot that this river was previ. oufly difcovered by Terdlnand de Soto in 154 1 alio. by Col Wood in 1654 and by Captain Bolt in 1670, Monfieur de la Salle was the firft who traverfed that rriva and. river In the fpring of the fame year 1682 he pafled murder of I9. down to the mouths of the Mifllflippi he afterwards. remounted that river and returned to Canada in the. month of Oftober following from whence he took, his paffage to France where he gave fo flattering an. account of the advantages that would certainly accrue. from the fettling a colony in thofe parts that a com. pany was formed for carrying thofe deligns into exe. cution with a fquadron conflfting of four vefl els. having on board a fufficient number of perfons and. all kinds of goods and provifions nccelTary for the. fervice of the new colony which he propofed to fix. at or near the mouth of But having,the Miffiffippi.
failed beyond the mouth of the he attempted, to fix a colony at the bay of St Bernard where he ar. rived the 1 8th of February 1684 about 100 leagues. weftward of the Miffiffipjpi There his men under, went fuch hardlhips that mofi of them periflied mifc. xably The leader animated with an ardent defire of. extending C as difcoveries made various excui fions. with fuch of them who were able to travel but on the. 1 9th of March 1 68 jy two of his men villainoufly mur. dered him when exploring the interior parts of the. country in fearch of mines and of the tradt which,led to thofe of St Barbe in New Mexico. Ibberville s About feven years after Monf Ibberville a refpe t. Arrival a b g ofiicer in the French navy undertook to execute. v hatever La Salle had promifed and his reputation. being eftablifhed already the court intrufted him with. the conduiSt of the projeft He carried his people, very fafely to the mouth of the great river and there. laid the foundation of the fii fi colony the French. ever had in the Miffiflippi He took care to pi ovide. them with every thing neceflary for their fubfifl ance. and obliged them to ertd a fort for their defence, againft the Indians This being done he returned to.
France in order to obtain fupplies,The fuccefs of hisvoyage made him extremely. welcome at court and he was foon in a condition to. put to fea again His fecond voyage was as fortunate. as the firil but very unluckily for his colony he,died whilft he was preparing for the third The de. fign might have been abandoned had not Crozat a,private man of an immenfe fortune undertaken its. Louifiana fupport at his own expcnce In 1 7 1 2 the King gave. fat him Louifiana Thus Lewis imitated the Pope,who divided between the kings of Spain and Portu. gal the territories of America where the holy fee had. not one inch of ground, In this grant the bounds are fixed by the Illinois Bounds of.
river and the lake of that name on the North by Ca. rolina on the Eaft the gulph of Mexico on the South. and New Mexico on the Weft As to Canada or, New France the French court would fcarcely admit it. had any other northern boundary than the Pole The, avidity of Great Britain was equal but France having. been unfortunate in the war of 1 710 the northern, boundary of Canada was fixed by the treaty of Utrecht Limits of. in 17 1 It afllgns New Britain and Hudfon s Bay i ouifiana and. i i r y r 1 T,Canada by the, on the North or Canada to Great Britam and com treaty of. miflloners afterwards on both fides afcertained the li I t. mits by an imaginary line running from a cape or, promontory in New Britain to the Atlantic ocean in.
58 degrees 30 minutes North latitude thence South, weft to the lake Mifgofink or Miftafim from thence. farther South weft diredlly to the latitude of 49 de. grees All the lands to the North of the imaginary,lin being afligned to Great Britain and all. fouthward of that line as far as the river of St Lau. rence to the French Thefe were at that time the, true limirs of Louifiana and Canada Crozat s grant. not fubfifting long after the death of Lewis XIV, In order to have fome plaufible pretence for fet Crozat s craiit. ting on foot a proje fl for changing the face of pub vacated. lie affairs in France this fettlement was thought the. moft convenient and therefore all imaginable pains. were taken to reprefent it as a paradife and place. from whence inexhauftible riches might be derived,provided due encouragement could be obtained from.
government For this purpofe it was chought re, quifite that a new company fhould be erected to make. way for which Mr Crozat was to refign his grant,which he did accordingly. This occafioned the nolfe that Was tfiade about the. Miffiffippi not in France only but throughout all, Europe which was filled with romantic ftories of the. Vait fruitfulnefs of the banks of this great river and. the incredible wealth that was likely to flow from. thence and thofe accounts though true in part irt,ihe end proved ruinous to many. Befoi e the treaty of peace iu 17 52 Louifiana or, bci re the the fouthern part of New France extended in the.
peace of 176a,pj gj j maps from the gulph of Mexico in about 29. degrees to near 45 degrees of Nox th latitude on the. Weft of the Miffiffippi and to near 39 degrees On its. eaftern bank Its boundaries were Canada on the,North New York Pennfylvania Maryland Virgi. nia North and South Carolina Georgia and the, North weft part of the eafternmoft peninfula of Flo. rida on the Eaftj the Gulf of Mexico on the South j. andlaftlythe kingdom of New Mexico on the Weft,Abflird clain s. The European ftates having obferved that kings and. republicks claimed the fovereignty of every tra6t which. had been feen and were pretended to have been dif, covered by navigators failing under their flags their.
geographers were not permitted to publilh maps which. might have contradicted fuch wild claims This was,the abfurdity of former days But political circum. fiances often emboldened pretenders to urge their chi. merical rights and their no lefs chimerical opponents. then yielded what they had no better right to cede. But the abfurd recognition of fuch abfurd pretenfions. is but a temporary compliance It ever did and ever. will fow the feeds of implacable animofities and con. tentions until pre occupancy and cultivation the, true tefts of lawful pofTcflion fliall have remedied. the former invalidity of the claim, Both fides of the Miffifilppi continued under the do. minion of his moft Chriftian Majefty till the peace of. 1762 when the eafterti fide was ceded to tliiC king of. Great Britain by the 7th article of the definitive treatyj. in the following words In order to re eftablifh,I ivifion line. peace on folid and durable foundations and to re, move for ever all iubjedt of difpute with regard to the French and.
limits of the Britifli and French territories on the I702. continent of America it is agreed that for the fu, ture the CO fines between the dominions of his Bri. tannic Majefty in that part of the world fhall be, fixed irrevocably by a line drawn along the middle of. the river Miffiffippi from its fource to the river Ib. bervillc and from thence by a line drawn along the. middle of this river and the Lakes Maurepas and, Ponchartrain to the fea j and for this purpofe the. moft Chriftian I ing cedes in full right and guaran. ties to his Britannic Majefby the river and port of. the Mobille and every thing v hich he poflefies or. ought to pofiefs on the left fide of the river Mifilfilp. pi except the town of New Orleans and the ifland, in which it is fituated which fhall remain to France. provided that the navigation of the river Mifllflippi. ihall be equally free as well to the fubjefts of Great. Britain as to thofe of France in Its whole length,from its fource to the fea and exprefly that part.
which between the faid ifland of New Orleans and, the right bank of that river as well as the pafiage. both in and out of its mouth it is further fl ipulated. that the vefi els belonging to the fubjecls of either na. tion fliall not be flopped vifited or fubjedfed to. the payment of any duty whatfoever The ftipulati,ons inferted in the favour of the in. 4th article in, habitants of Canada fhall alfo take place with regard. to the inhabitants of the countries ceded by this ar. In the year 1762 and the day before the preli Theceriionof. n his ChrlUian,articles to the,peace were ligned his Lhnitian. Majefty to, Majefty ceded to Spain all his territories on the weft Spain.
ern fide of the Miflifiippi together with the town of. AN HISTORICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION amp c A DESCRIPTIONoftherlvqrMiffiffippi andthecountrythroughwhicnitflows calledLouifiana wouldhavebeenthefirft obje

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