AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION FOR RURAL

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International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology Research. Vol 3 No 1 January 2014 PP 1 17 ISSN 2325 3924 Online. Available online at http ijretr org, ICE Internal combustion engine Gt Electricity generated in yr t kWh. LCOE Levelised cost of Electricity kWh M O M cost, LHVw Lower Heating Value on wet basis t Year under consideration yr. MCw Moisture content on wet basis T Company tax rate. NERC Nigerian Electricity Regulatory V Total market value Debt plus Equity. Commission, O M Operating and maintenance W Market value of Equity. PV Present Value X Market value of Debt,SFC Specific Fuel consumption. WACC Weighted average cost of capital,1 Introduction.
Access to a cheap uninterruptible and sustainable electricity supply is a precursor for attaining and sustaining. socio economic development In fact it is fundamental requirement for poverty reduction 1 People without. electricity access are constrained to a life of poverty Nigerians especially the rural dwellers suffer some of the. worst forms of electricity poverty in the world 2, Presently an average of 48 of Nigerian households 15 3 million lack access to grid electricity as can be seen. in Table 1 2 and for those connected to the national grid supply is epileptic to say the least Electricity. demand has been on the increase geometrically 3 while installed electricity capacity has remained relatively. stable over the last decade at 5 9 GW while annual electricity generation stands at between 2Gw to 3GW 3. This is not enough to meet the current electricity demand forecasted at 10GW 4 Nigerian rural areas suffer the. most electricity deprivation 2, Table 1 Distribution of households without electricity access in the different geo political zones of Nigeria in. Percentage 5,South South Nort North,South West North East. South East West Centeral, Ekiti 15 2 38 3 Abia 33 3 Jigawa 56 5 Benue 72 0 Adamawa 71 4. Lagos 0 3 Bayels 36 9 Anambara 38 3 Kaduna 42 4 Kogi 48 1 Bauchi 58 5. Ogun 20 4 46 3 Ebonyi 68 1 Kano 56 2 Kwara 38 5 Borno 77 3. Ondo 41 9 Delta 46 3 Enugu 48 5 Katsina 59 7 Nasarawa 70 6 Gombe 55 4. Osun 33 9 Edo 15 2 Imo 12 6 Kebbi 54 4 Niger 56 5 Taraba 88 8. Oyo 38 8 Rivers 21 7 Sokoto 69 5 Plateau 71 3 Yobe 78 0. Zamfara 77 1,Average 25 34 1 40 2 59 4 59 5 71 6, The Nigerian government has expansion plans to increase electricity generation assets to provide rising energy.
needs engendered by growing Nigerian economy According to the policy document The Nigeria Vision 2020. broad vision Program 1 the Nigerian Government targets to meet the electricity coverage demand in all. sectors of the Nigerian economy including the energy needs of households in rural and urban areas with safe. clean and convenient energy at an affordable cost This entails rural electrification of the hundreds of small. communities presently without electricity and far from the existing grid To attain the vision it must be done in. a technically efficient economically viable and environmentally sustainable manner using different energy. sources conventional and non conventional as well as new and emerging energy sources to ensure good mix. and supply at all times with minimal disruption, Ideally Extension of electrical grid where adequate capacity exists is generally the favoured choice for. supplying electricity to isolated areas because it allows for the provision of regular power minimises. maintenance costs and maximises reliability and efficiency compared with smaller stand alone diesel generators. 6 However With the ongoing restructuring and privatization of the Nigerian electricity industry it is obvious. that for logistic and economic reasons especially under the privatized power sector extending the grid to rural. areas will not be attractive to independent private power investors Such areas may remain un electrified for the. distant future except an alternative source of energy that is not grid dependent is explored. International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology Research. Vol 3 No 1 January 2014 PP 1 17 ISSN 2325 3924 Online. Available online at http ijretr org, Again when grid extension is not economically feasible electricity is supplied by decentralised diesel. generators 6 However despite low initial investment requirements the operation and maintenance. requirements expenditures of diesel generators are very high thus making this technology option unsustainable. in isolated rural communities where household income is low and skilled labour scarce. Under these circumstances renewable energy technologies which are relatively easy to maintain and do not. require imported fuel inputs represent an attractive and cost effective source of electricity for rural areas where. distances are large populations are small and demand for energy is low 6. One of the great promises offered by the renewable energy technologies is their Potential to provide electricity. in areas not served by national power grids Fortunately Nigeria is blessed with an abundant mix of renewable. energy sources such as biomass solar wind and hydro power as shown in Table 2. Table 2 Estimated Reserves of Renewable Energy sources in Nigeria 1 7. Energy Source Estimated Reserves,Large Hydropower 10 000 MW. Small Hydropower 734 MW,Fuel Wood 39 1 million tonnes yr. Animal Waste 61 Million Tonnes per yr,Crop Residue 83 Million Tonnes per yr.
Solar Radiation 3 5 7 0 KWh m2 day,Wind 2 4 m s at 10m height. Municipal Solid Waste 4 075 million tonnes yr, Among these options biomass stands higher in the Nigerian context as the biomass is uniformly spread in the. country and biomass based energy has a vital role in the rural life where agriculture is the principal activity 8. Hydro power potential of Nigeria is low due to the relative flatness of the country 1 Wind power generation. and its application in Nigeria have certain constraints due to lack of reliable wind speed data and seasonal. variation of wind speed The country has good prospects of utilising solar PV systems for electricity generation. but the high capital investment cost of solar PV is a big barrier for adopting such systems 9. Nigeria can thus tap its abundant biomass resource for secure reliable and affordable energy to expand. electricity access and promote development, Biomass is a widespread energy source in Nigeria and many biomass power generation options are mature. commercially available technologies e g direct combustion in stoker boilers low percentage co firing. anaerobic digestion municipal solid waste incineration landfill gas and combined heat and power 10. It is currently the principal global contributor of renewable energy and has considerable potential to expand in. the production of electricity and bio fuels for transport 10. There can be many advantages to using biomass instead of fossil fuels for power generation including lower. greenhouse gas GHG emissions energy cost savings improved security of supply waste. management reduction opportunities and local economic development opportunities 10 Additionally Power. from Biomass has the potential to supply half of the total electricity demands in Nigeria especially in the rural. areas Biomass based power offers a highly affordable and viable alternative for bridging the electricity. demand supply gap with the overall benefit of accessibility and availability of electricity for lighting and small. scale industrial related activities employment and income generation to the rural dwellers and ensuring diversity. and security of supplies 10 11, Decentralized small scale electricity production is currently a common practice in many countries of the world. especially where a well established electricity grid is absent Globally In 2010 the total capacity of installed. biomass fuelled electricity plants was in the range of 54 GW to 62 GW 10 meaning biomass powered. generation represented 1 2 of total world power generation capacity and provided around 1 4 to 1 5 of. world electricity production 10, International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology Research.
Vol 3 No 1 January 2014 PP 1 17 ISSN 2325 3924 Online. Available online at http ijretr org, The employment of biomass fuels is a proven option for decentralized small to medium scale electricity. generation 12 14 Nigeria is ideally suited for the development of small scale biomass energy systems This. work therefore proposes sustainable biomass electricity generation model through Biomass gasification for rural. electrification in Nigeria Northern states This is done by investigating the Nigerian Biomass resource. availability feasible technologies economic plant size electricity generation cost and sensitivity of basic. factors of generation Therefore the study will not be comparing cost of biomass power and diesel since the low. income in rural areas will mean the rural dwellers cannot afford the high cost of diesel based electricity In. particular this research answers the question is Decentralised Electricity Generation from biomass. gasification viable in Nigeria rural areas The study estimates the electricity tariff through life cycle cost of. an off grid electrification project using biomass gasification system and compares it with the tariff currently. being charged for grid electricity in Nigeria over the same period. 2 0 Biomass Resource in Nigeria and Utilisation, Nigeria has an estimated population of over 158 3 million in 2010 and it covers a land area of 923 768 square. km 15 The total land available in Nigeria for agriculture and under vegetation is a measure of its biomass. The Nigerian biomass energy resources is estimated to be 144 million tonnes year 1 and consist mainly of. wood forage grasses and shrubs animal wastes arising from forestry agricultural municipal and industrial. activities as well as aquatic biomass, The distribution of the biomass sources vary according to region with the highest quantity of woody biomass. being generated from the rain forest in the south while the guinea savannah vegetation of the north central. region generates more crop residues than the Sudan and Sahel savannah zones Industrial effluent such as. sugarcane molasses is located close to the processes with which they are associated Municipal wastes are. generated in the high density urban areas Table 3 shows the brake down of estimated biomass resources in. Table 3 Biomass Resources and Estimated Quantities in Nigeria 7. Estimated Quantity Energy Value,Million Tonnes 000MJ. Fuel Wood 39 1 531 0,Saw Dust 1 8 31 4,Agro Waste 11 2 147 7.
Municipal solid Waste MSW 4 1, Over the period 1989 2000 fuel wood and charcoal constituted between 32 and 40 of total primary energy. consumption 7 In year 2000 national demand was estimated to be 39 million tonnes of fuel wood About 95. of the total fuel wood consumption was used in households for cooking and for cottage industrial activities such. as for processing cassava and oil seeds which are closely related to household activities A smaller proportion. of the fuel wood and charcoal consumed was used in the services sector. According to the international renewable energy agency in 2000 and 2009 the total primary energy supply in. Nigeria was 3 760 4 PJ and 4 532 3 PJ respectively with biomass representing 83 and 85 of the total. respectively as depicted in table4 15, International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology Research. Vol 3 No 1 January 2014 PP 1 17 ISSN 2325 3924 Online. Available online at http ijretr org, Table 4 Total Primary Energy Supply in yrs 2000 and 2009 by Source 15. Primarry Energy Supply Primarry Energy supply,Energy source. yr 2000 yr 2009,Oil and oil Products 10 9,Natural Gas 6 5.
Hydro 1 0 4,Biomass 83 85, 3 0 Biomass to electricity conversion processes technologies. Electricity can be gotten from Biomass in many ways The conversion is typically done in two stages the first. stage converts biomass into intermediate fuel using either of biological processes anaerobic digestion and. fermentation Chemical processes Fischer Tropsch and trans etherification or Thermal process gasification. pyrolysis and combustion 10 In the second stage there is a generation engine and the intermediate fuel of the. first stage processes are then fed into a generation engine which converts the intermediate products into. electricity energy, Theoretically various possible engines configurations or technology can be used in the second stage process. above for the production of electricity energy such as a combustion unit in combination with a steam turbine a. gas turbine a Stirling motor or even a fuel cell or a gasifier coupled to IC engine steam or gas turbine Fuel. cells are still in an early stage of development and due to their very high cost seem to not be a viable option. Table 5 below shows the comparative technical evaluation of the options 11 16 In practice IC piston engines. are almost exclusively used to drive electric generators for the small scale applications discussed here. Table5 Comparative evaluation of technical options for biomass conversion to electricity 11. Efficiency capital,Technology Merits Limitations,1 Gasifier With. generator coupled to IC 15 22 1 0 Low cost and simple High maintenance for. engine with producer construction engine low fuel flexibility. gas Suitable for size up to 250, 2 Biomass boiler steam 10 15 20 Robust design fuel Low efficiency not. engine flexibility low maintenance suitable for installation in. International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology Research which are relatively easy to maintain January 2014 PP 1 17 ISSN 2325

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