An Analysis of Regulatory Frameworks for Wireless

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An Analysis of Regulatory Frameworks for Wireless Communications Societal Concerns and Risk. The Case of Radio Frequency RF Allocation and Licensing. Copyright 2008 Haim Mazar, All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. electronic or mechanical including photocopying recording or by any information storage and retrieval. system without written permission from the publisher. Dissertation com,Boca Raton Florida,ISBN 10 1 59942 710 9. ISBN 13 978 1 59942 710 2,Cover design by Shereen Siddiqui. This thesis analyses how and why culture and geography influence the allocation and. licensing of the radio frequency RF spectrum in different nations Based on a broad study. of 235 countries an inter disciplinary approach is used to explore regulatory frameworks. and attitudes toward risk In addition detailed case studies of the UK France the US and. Ecuador provide deeper insights into the main contrasting regulatory styles. Three alternative sociological theories are used to analyse and explain the results for both the. in depth and broad brush studies The Cultural Theory of Mary Douglas and co workers is. first used to categorise countries in terms of perceptual filters The empirical findings. indicate some countries to be apparently exceptional in their behaviour The theory of. Bounded Rationality is used to investigate and explain these apparent irrationalities Finally. Rational Field Theory shows how beliefs and values guide administrations in their RF. regulation, A number of key factors are found to dominate and patterns emerge The European RF. harmonisation is unique Following European unification wireless regulation is divided into. two major camps the EU and the US which differ in their risk concerns approach to top. down mandated standards allocation of RF spectrum to licence exempt bands and type. approval process The adoption of cellular and TV standards around the world reflects. geopolitical and colonial influence The language of a country is a significant indicator of its. analogue TV standard Interestingly the longitude of a country to a fair extent defines RF. allocation Africa and West Asia follow Europe whereas the Americas approximate the US. RF regulation and risk tolerability differ between tropical and non tropical climates The. collectivised centralised versus the individualised market based rationalities result in. different regulatory frameworks and contrasting societal and risk concerns The success of. the top down European GSM and the bottom up Wi Fi standards reveal how the central. planning and market based approaches have thrived Attitudes to RF human hazards and. spurious emissions levels reveal that the US Canada and Japan are more tolerant of these. risks than Europe Australia Canada New Zealand UK and USA encourage technological. innovation, A practical benefit of this study is that it will give regulators more freedom to choose a.
rational RF licensing protocol by better understanding the possibly self imposed boundaries. of cultural and geographical factors which are currently shaping allocation Academically. there is utility in undertaking a cultural and geographic analysis of a topic that is mostly the. domain of engineering economic and legal analysts,Preliminary ii. Acknowledgements iii,Abbreviations iii,Introduction 6. Chapter 1 Literature Review 33, Chapter 2 International and Regional Regulatory Frameworks for Wireless 66. Communications, Chapter 3 Case Studies UK France USA and Ecuador Europe versus the US 113. Regulatory Frameworks Societal Concerns and Risk, Chapter 4 Indicators Cross National Study of Wireless Regulation and Standards 157.
Chapter 5 Theories Three Sociological Theories 212. Chapter 6 Discussion Three Theories Explaining the Empirical Results 253. Chapter 7 Conclusion 302,References 306,Appendix A List of External Experts 314. Appendix B Master Data 235 Countries Geography Culture and RF factors 319. Acknowledgements, The author thanks the 88 multiple observers of 46 countries Consultation with experts was. done through email correspondence and conversations Especially thanks are due to Alonso. Llanos from Ecuador Jose Cracovski from Argentina Michel Lemaitre from France and. Eliezer Oren from the US for their valuable inputs. Abbreviations,3G Third Generation,3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project. ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practicable,ANFR Agence Nationale des Fr quences. ANSI American National Standards Institute,APT Asia Pacific Telecommunity.
ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses Japan. ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee USA,ATU African Telecommunications Union. BR Bounded Rationality, CAATEL Comite Andino de Autoridades de Telecomunicaciones South America. CAN Comunidad Andina de Naciones South America, CANTO Caribbean Association of National Telecommunication Organisations. CAPTEF Conf rence Administrative des Postes et T l communications des pays. d Expression Fran aise, CCIR Comit Consultatif International de la Radio the former name of ITU R. CDMA Code Division Multiple Access,CEN Comit Europ en de Normalisation.
CENELEC Comit Europ en de Normalisation ELECtrotechnique. CEPT Conf rence Europ enne des Administrations des Postes et des. T l communications,CFR Code of Federal Regulations USA. CITEL Comisi n Interamericana de TELecomunicaciones. Preliminary iii, CPP Calling Party Pays contrary to cellular Receiving Party Pays RPP. CSN Comunidad Sudamericana de Naciones,CT Cultural Theory. CTO Commonwealth Telecoms Organisation,dB deciBel, DECT Digital European Cordless Telecommunication System. DMB T Digital Multimedia Broadcasting Terrestrial China. DVB H Digital Video Broadcasting Handheld Europe, DVB T Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial Europe.
EBU European Broadcasting Union, EC European Community subsequently also European Union EU. ECC European Communications Committee,e Electronic Communications. Communications,EDGE Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution. EEC European Communities Commission,EFTA European Free Trade Association. EMF Electro Magnetic Fields,ERO European Radiocommunications Office.
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute. EU European Union,FCC Federal Communications Commission USA. FM Frequency Modulation, FRATEL reseau FRAncophone de la r gulation des T L communication. FTAA Free Trade Area of the Americas,GDP Gross Domestic Product. GE89 Regional Agreement for the African TV Broadcasting Area Geneva. GPRS General Packet Radio Service,GPS Global Positioning System. GSM Groupe Sp ciale Mobile Global System for Mobile communication. GSO Geostationary Satellite Orbit,HDTV High Definition TV.
HF High Frequency 3 30 MHz,Hz Hertz the base unit of frequency. ICNIRP International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection. ICT Information and Communication Technologies,IEC International Electrotechnical Commission. IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. IFC International Finance Corporation, IIRSA Initiative for the Integration of South America region. IMF International Monetary Fund, IMT 2000 International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 ITU termed IMT. following the 2007 Radio Assembly RA 07, ISDB T Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting Terrestrial Japan.
ISM Industrial Scientific and Medical,ISO Industrial Organisation for Standardisation. ITU International Telecommunications Union,ITU D ITU Development Sector. ITU R ITU Radiocommunications Sector,ITU T ITU Telecommunications Sector. LAFTA Latin American Free Trade Association,Preliminary iv. LDC Least Developed Countries,LE Licence Exempt,MAC Multiplexed Analogue Components.
MERCOSUR Mercado Com n del Sur South America,NAFTA North America Free Trade Agreement. NRA National Regulatory Authority, NRPB the former UK National Radiological Protection Board. NSO National Standards Organisations,NTSC National Television System Committee USA. OAS Organisation of American States, OECD Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development. OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing,PAL Phase Alternation by Line Germany and UK.
PLC Power Line Communication,PTT Postal Telegraphic and Telecommunications. R TTE Radio equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment EC. RCC Regional Commonwealth in the field of Communication former USSR. RF Radio Frequency,RFID Radio Frequency IDentification. RFT Rational Field Theory,RLAN Radio Local Area Network. RMS Root Mean Square,RR Radio Regulations of the ITU. RRC 06 Regional Radio Conference 2006 also titled GE 06 and Geneva 06. SAR Specific Absorption Rate, SECAM S quentiel Couleur Avec M moire Sequential Colour with Memory.
SRD Short Range Devices, ST61 Regional Agreement for the European Broadcasting Area Stockholm. T DAB Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcasting CEPT, TD SCDMA Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access China. TETRA Trans European Trunked RAdio ETSI,TIA Telecommunications Industry Association USA. UHF Ultra High Frequency 300 3 000 MHz, UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System ETSI. UWB Ultra Wide Band,VHF Very High Frequency 30 300 MHz.
WARC World Administrative Radio Conference ITU,WB World Bank. WHO World Health Organization,Wi Fi Wireless Fidelity IEEE. WRC World Radio Conference,WTA Wireless Telegraphy Act. WTO World Trade Organisation,Preliminary v,Introduction. 1 Overview 7,2 Methodology 8,2 1 What is Done the Structure of the Chapters 8.
2 2 How it is Done Multiple Case Studies 10,2 3 Case Studies Choice of Regions and States 10. 2 4 Findings Answer How Culture and Geography Influence 11. 2 5 Three Sociological Theories Explain Different Rationalities 13. 2 6 How Components Fit Together 14,3 Theories 14,4 RF in General 15. 5 RF Standards and Emission Limits 16,5 1 Television Standards 17. 5 2 Cellular Standards 21,5 3 TV and Cellular Standards Conclusion 23. 5 4 Human Hazards Risks from RF Exposure 24,5 5 Spurious Emissions 29.
5 6 RF Standards and Thresholds Conclusion 32,Figure 2 1 The structure of the research 9. Table 5 1 Technical comparison of the three analogue TV standards 19. Table 5 2 Technical parameters of the three digital TV Standards 20. Table 5 3 Physical quantities and units 26, Table 5 4 ICNIRP and EC reference levels for exposure 27. Table 5 5 FCC exposure limits FCC 2001 67 27, Table 5 6 The new IEEE permissible exposure IEEE Std C95 1 2005 25 table 9 27. Table 5 7 Derived levels power density W m WHO International UK USA 28. Table 5 8 Maximal power from handsets Specific Absorption Rate SAR W kg 28. Table 5 9 Categories of spurious emissions limits 29. Table 5 10 Comparative spurious emissions limits 30. Table 5 11 Comparative spurious emissions values dBm for various systems 31. Table 5 12 Standards and thresholds Europe versus North America 32. Introduction 6,1 Overview, Wireless rules indicate how a society functions and its decision making processes RF. Radio Frequency thresholds reveal the national risk attitude The research explains how. choices are unnecessarily bound by culture it contrasts rationalities and RF regulation in the. European and American hemispheres This research breaks new ground by correlating. regulation with geography and colonial heritage Technical wireless regulation is not usually. perceived as related to culture but the research highlights the links and correlations between. the two This dissertation presents multiple case studies on selected countries as well as a. wider reference of all countries, Suggesting a correlation and explaining the influence of the culture and geographical latitude.
on RF allocation and licensing is unique Cultural Theory Bounded Rationality and Rational. Field Theory have never been used before in this context For the first time research has been. carried out to investigate the validity of these sociological theories within the regulatory. framework of wireless communications there is utility in doing so. The three theories set out a framework for explaining social responses to risk and the. different decision makers rationalities are highlighted A comparison of societal and risk. concerns contributes to the debate about the relative cautiousness of the US relative to. Europe This knowledge provides more freedom to regulators around the world in. understanding their possibly self imposed or externally imposed boundaries and hence. having opportunities to break out of them The cultural and geographical dimensions in. analysing RF allocation licensing and adoption of standards have generally been neglected. The central thrust of the analysis is coming from cultural influences on RF allocation. The research questions are, 1 How and why do culture and geography influence RF allocation and licensing. 2 To what extent do sociological theories of risk offer an explanation of the pattern of. allocation of the RF spectrum including licensing and issues of risk tolerability. 3 What are the different rationalities in RF allocation and licensing. Introduction 7,2 Methodology,2 1 What was Done the Structure of the Chapters. This section describes how the research for this dissertation has been carried out and how. the top down European GSM and the bottom up Wi Fi standards reveal how the central planning and market based approaches have thrived Attitudes to RF human hazards and spurious emissions levels reveal that the US Canada and Japan are more tolerant of these risks than Europe Australia Canada New Zealand UK and USA encourage technological

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