America and the Great War ishmam ahmed

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o Wilson accepted offer of mediation by the ABC Powers Argentina Brazil Chile which proposed. withdrawal of US forces removal of Huerta installation of provisional government and reform. o Huerta was forced the leave office Americans left in late 1914 Carranza recognized as president. Tension between revolutionary factions caused civil war. o Independent gang of bandits arose, o Francesco Pancho Villa s seized a train and murdered Americans in an attempt to trigger US. intervention failed, o Villa crossed the border and led raids in Texas and New Mexico killed Americans. Furious Wilson abandoned policy of watchful waiting. o Sent General John Pershing and troops to chase Villa no luck in catching him. o Carranza passed liberal constitution,Problems in the Caribbean. The dollar diplomacy practiced by the Taft administration had encouraged bankers in the US to aid debt. plagued governments in the Caribbean, o Wilson was against using military forced to back up American investments but still sent marines to. o Marines entered Haiti and the Dominican Republic later. o Repeated use of military force only increased Latin Americans hatred toward the US. An Uneasy Neutrality, Wilson s wife died devastated remarried six months later.
American s were surprised by war in civilized Europe. Peace ended when an Austrian citizen of Serbian descent who wanted an independent Serbia assassinated. the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand,o Austria wanted to punish Serbia for the murder. o Led to mobilization of Russian army in sympathy for Serbia. o Led to trigger of European system of alliances, Triple Alliance Central Powers Germany Austria Italy. Triple Entente Allied Powers France Great Britain Russia. o Germany backed Austria Russia backed Serbia,o Germany declared war on Russia and France. o Germany invaded Belgium to get at France which brought Great Britain into the war. o Japan was eager to seize German holdings on the Pacific declared war. o Turkey joined Central Powers, o Although allied with Central Powers Italy initially stayed out of war and then struck a bargain under. which it joined Allied Powers,WWI was unlike any previous conflict.
o Scope and carnage, o Machine guns rifles aerial bombings poison gas flame throwers land mines long range artillery. armored tanks,o 9 million killed 19 million wounded. Battlefields were horrid,Ishmam Ahmed Ishmam com, o Quick fighting developed into slow stalemates mediocre generals. o Battle of Verdun devastation of landscape in northern France. Germans vs French,High casualties on both sides,Trench warfare gave WWI its character. o 475 miles of trenches,o Miserable trench life,Initial Reactions.
Casualties soared and pressure for American intervention increased. o In Battle of Somme 20 000 British soldiers were killed. o Shock in the United States gave way to gratitude that an ocean stood between America and the killing. o President Wilson urged public to be neutral in thought and action. American found it hard to be neutral due to many hyphenated American immigrants. o Largest group was German American supported Central Powers. o Irish Americans were opposed toward England supported Central Powers. o Americans of British origin supported Allied Powers. o American leaders were pro British,A Strained Neutrality. Allied demands for food and war supplies generated economic boom after initial threat of depression. o Allies financed purchases by disposing American securities and with loans. o Wilson approved short term credit to sustain trade with Allies. o It became apparent that Allies needed long term credit more money was lent by investors. Administration clung to neutrality and tried to uphold freedom of the seas. Secretary of State Bryan called upon belligerents to accept the Declaration of London. o Reduced the list of contraband and specified that blockade was legal only when effective just outside. enemy ports, o Central Powers accepted the declaration British refused didn t want to lose advantage of sea power. o British declared the whole North Sea a war zone subjected neutral ships to searches. o British announced that ships carrying goods to Germany would be seized despite American protest. Neutral Rights and Submarines, German government proclaimed a war zone around British Isles. o Advantage of U boat was surprise established procedure of stopping an enemy vessel and providing. safety to passengers before sinking it was forgone. o British ships flew neutral flags as a ruse so neutral ships were also in danger. United States pronounced the German policy of an indefensible violation of neutral rights and warned that. German would be held to strict accountability for destruction of American lives and property. o German submarine sunk the Lusitania, o German embassy had published warnings that travel to the war zone was dangerous. Americans were outraged Roosevelt claimed the sinking was an act of piracy. o Wilson urged patience immediately knew he had misspoken critics bashed him. Ishmam Ahmed Ishmam com, o Secretary of State Bryan signed a note demanding that the Germans abandon unrestricted submarine.
warfare disavow sinking and pay reparations, o Germans responded saying that the Lusitania was armed actually wasn t and that it carried weapons. actually was, o Second note repeated demands signed by Bryan s successor Robert Lansing. o Bryan resigned due to pressure, German government secretly ordered U boat captains to avoid sinking large passenger vessels. o However two American lives were lost in the sinking of the Arabic Germans paid reparations and. pledged to warn before attacking, o With the Arabic pledge it seemed Wilson s resolution stand had won. Colonel House visited London Paris and Berlin in an effort to negotiate an end to war. o Neither side was ready to begin serious negotiations. o Wilson warned that if the US accepted a single abatement of neutral rights the whole fine fabric of. international law might crumble under our hands piece by piece. o U boat torpedoed the French steam Sussex Wilson threatened to break off relations Germany. renewed its pledge that U boats would not torpedo merchant and passenger ships. o The Sussex pledge implied the virtual abandonment of submarine warfare. The Debate over Preparedness, Lusitania incident and quarrels over neutral commerce contributed to demand for stronger army and navy.
o National Security League promoted cause of defense. o Wilson asked War and Navy Departments to draft proposals for military expansion. Progressives pacifists residents of South and West were opposed to defense buildup. o Traditional American suspicion of standing armies. o Administration s plan to enlarge army and create national reserve force ran into opposition in the House. Military Affairs Committee, o Wilson was forced to accept a compromise National Defense Act of 1916 expanded regular federal. army from 90 000 to 175 000 and permitted gradual enlargement to 223 000. Also increased national guard made provision for training gave federal funds for summer. training camps for civilians, Bill for increased navy aroused less opposition because less danger of militarism from strong navy than strong. standing army, The Naval Construction Act of 1916 authorized funding for three year expansion program. Opponents of buildup insisted that the financial burden should rest upon the wealthy. o Income tax became their weapon, o Revenue Act of 1916 doubled basic income tax rate lifted the surtax to a maximum of 13 on income. over 2 million added estate tax levied 12 5 tax on gross receipts of munitions makers added a new. tax on excess corporate profits most clear cut victory of radical Progressives. The Election of 1916, Republicans hoped to regain their normal electoral majority Roosevelt hoped to be leader again.
o Roosevelt s eagerness for the United States to enter war scared many voters. o Republican regulars turned to Justice Charles Evans Hughes who had Progressive record. o Progressive National Committee disbanded the party and endorsed Hughes. Ishmam Ahmed Ishmam com,Democrats chose Wilson, o Platform endorsed social welfare legislation neutrality reasonable military preparedness. o Commended women s suffrage to states and pledged support for a postwar league of nations to enforce. o Democrats most popular issue was insistent pledge to keep the nation out of war in Europe. Wilson and Hughes were similar,o Both sons of preachers. o Both attorneys and former professors,o Both had been Progressive governors. o Wilson proved to be better campaigner,Last Efforts for Peace. Wilson offered to mediate an end to the war in Europe but neither side was willing to abandon war aims. Wilson asserted the right of the US to share in laying the foundations for a lasting peace. o Peace must be based on democratic government freedom of the seas disarmament and those ideals. must be enforced by an international league for peace. Although he didn t know it Wilson was too late, o Impatient German military leaders decided to wage war.
o They took risk of arousing American anger in hope of a quick win. o New policy announced that all vessels would be sunk without warning. Wilson told Congress that US had broken diplomatic relations with the German government. o Asked for authority to arm merchant ships but non interventionists filibustered to prevent it in time. o State Department announced forgotten law of 1792 allowed arming of merchant ships. Wilson learned that the British had intercepted and decoded an important message from the German foreign. secretary Zimmermann to ambassador in Mexico, o Note instructed the envoy to offer an alliance with Mexico in case of war between US and Germany. o Zimmerman telegram broke in the American press and infuriated public. o Revolution overthrew Russian czarist government and established provisional government. o Americans thought all Allied powers were now fighting for democracy but then Bolsheviks led by Lenin. seized power in Russia and established Communist dictatorship. America s Entry into the War, 1917 German submarines sank five US merchant vessels in the North Atlantic. o Wilson s cabinet and Congress declared war, o The world must be made safe for democracy Wilson. Explanation for America s entrance into the war,o British propaganda in the US. o America s deep involvement in trade with the Allies. o German domination of Europe would be threat to American security. o Submarine warfare,America s Early Role,Army remained small and untested as did the navy.
Ishmam Ahmed Ishmam com, Americans made two important contributions to Allied naval strategy. o William Sims persuaded Allies to adopt convoy system. o US Navy laid gigantic minefield across the North Sea limiting U boat access. Liberty Loan Act added 5 billion to the national debt in liberty bonds 3 billion could be lent to Allies. o US was willing to give naval support financial credit supplies and munitions but not train and equip a. large army, o French insisted that US send troops to boost morale. o Wilson sent General Pershing to Paris, The need for large numbers of troops forced Wilson to embrace conscription. o Selective Service Act of 1917 all men aged 21 to 30 had to register. Mobilizing a Nation, Economic mobilization on the home front was necessary. o Arm Appropriation Act of 1916 created a Council of National Defense. o Lever Food and Fuel Control Act of 1917 created Food Administration. Headed by Hoover Food will win the war, War Industries Board WIB became the most important of all the mobilization agencies.
o Headed by Bernard Baruch, o Purchasing bureaus of the US and Allied governments submitted needs to the board set priorities. planned production allocated raw materials fix prices. A New Labor Force, Closing off of foreign immigration and allocation of men to the armed forces created labor shortage. o Women African Americans minorities were encouraged to enter industries. o Northern businesses sent recruiting agents into the Deep South. o North portrayed as land of promise migratory pattern. Newcomers were not always welcomed in the North,o Racial tension. o White angered by influx of blacks,WWI had more positive effects for women. o Organized war bond and relief drives,o Supported Red Cross.
o Joined army nurse corps,o Eventually worked in industry and agriculture. Changes in female employment were brief,o Most were young and single. o Most returned to previous job after war ended, o One lasting result of women s contributions to the war effort was Wilson s decision to endorse women s. War Propaganda, Gospel of efficiency suggested mobilization of public opinion. o Committee on Public Information headed by George Creel. o Propaganda instead of censorship,Ishmam Ahmed Ishmam com.
o Four minute men gave short speeches on liberty bonds need to conserve other topics. Civil Liberties, War effort channeled the zeal of Progressivism into grotesque campaigns of Americanism and witch hunting. o Anything German was equated with disloyalty, o Discrimination in music foods German nomenclature. Espionage and Sedition Acts Congress outlawed criticism of government leaders and war policies. o Espionage Act set penalties for anyone who have aid to the enemy. o Sedition Act extended penalties to those who did or said anything to obstruct the sale of liberty bonds. Problems in the Caribbean o Advantage of U boat was surprise established procedure of stopping an enemy vessel and providing safety to passengers before sinking it was forgone o British ships flew neutral flags as a ruse so neutral ships were also in danger United States pronounced the German policy of an indefensible violation of neutral rights and warned that German would be held

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