Algae for Aquaculture and Animal Feeds

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SCHWERPUNKT, ual strains of microalgae in separate reactors and initially receive live prey usually in the pres . administer these regularly to the farmed species ence of a background of microalgae Depend . The role of microalgae in aquaculture hatch ing on whether these microalgae are allowed. eries may be summarised as follows to bloom within the fish larval rearing tanks . or are added from external cultures this is, All developmental stages of bivalve molluscs. referred to as the green water or pseudo , are directly reliant on microalgae as a feed. green water rearing technique , source Bivalve hatcheries therefore cultivate. The zooplanktonic live prey referred to above, a range of microalgal strains for broodstock.
are microscopic filter feeders that are them , conditioning larval rearing and feeding of. selves commonly fed on microalgae although, newly settled spat . inert formulated feeds have been developed as a, Farmed gastropod molluscs e g abalone . more convenient diet form for use by hatcheries , and sea urchins require a diet of benthic dia . toms when they first settle out from the plank , ton prior to transferring to their juvenile diet 2 1 Microalgal Strains Used in Aquaculture.
of macroalgae Hatcheries, The planktonic larval stages of commercially. important crustaceans e g penaeid shrimps As referred to in previous reviews only a small. are initially fed on microalgae followed by number of microalgal strains are routinely cul . zooplanktonic live prey tured in aquaculture hatcheries based on practi . The small larvae of most marine finfish spe cal considerations of strain availability ease of. cies and some freshwater fish species also culture cell physical characteristics nutritional. Table 1 Groups genera and species of major microalgal strains used in aquaculture and their areas of. application, Group Genus Species Area of application. Cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis FFI, Chlorophyta Tetraselmis suecica chui B CL. Chlorella sp vulgaris minutissima virginica grossii R FFI. Dunaliella sp tertiolecta salina FFI, Haematococcus pluvialis FFI. Eustigmatophyceae Nannochloropsis sp oculata R GW. Phylum Heterokontophyta , Labyrinthulea Phylum Heterokonta Schizochytrium sp RAD.
Ulkenia sp RAD, Bacillariophyta diatoms Chaetoceros calcitrans gracilis B CL. Skeletonema costatum B CL, Thalassiosira pseudonana B CL. Nitzschia sp GU, Navicula sp GU, Amphora sp GU, Haptophyta Pavlova lutheri B. Isochrysis galbana add galbana Tahiti T iso B GW, Dinophyta dinoflagellates Crypthecodinium cohnii RAD. Key FFI formulated feed ingredient B bivalve molluscs larvae postlarvae broodstock C crustacean larvae shrimps lobst . ers R rotifer live prey RAD rotifer and Artemia live prey dry product form GU gastropod molluscs and sea urchins . GW green water for finfish larvae,Source Own compilation.
Seite 24 Technikfolgenabsch tzung Theorie und Praxis 21 Jg Heft 1 Juli 2012. SCHWERPUNKT, composition digestibility and absence of toxins or tinuous or continuous modes of operation along . irritants Muller Fuega et al 2003a Muller Fuega side more established batch cultivation techniques . et al 2003b Muller Fuega et al 2004 Tredici et The adoption by aquaculture hatcheries of hetero . al 2009 Anon 2010b Guedes Malcata 2012 trophically grown microbial biomass and biomass. Table 1 provides a non exhaustive list of the extracts as partial replacements for live microalgae. most commonly used strains and their typical ar also represents a significant technological advance. eas of application in aquaculture during this period see section 2 3 5 . A comprehensive literature exists on the nu The types of microalgal production system. tritional composition of these and other micro adopted by aquaculture hatcheries often reflect. algal strains and their efficacy as aquaculture regional aquaculture preferences rather than. hatchery feeds Brown et al 1997 Muller Feuga differences in the particular strains or quantities. et al 2003a Muller Feuga et al 2003b Muller of microalgae required by different aquaculture. Feuga et al Becker 2004 Guedes Malcata 2012 species To illustrate microalgae used to provide. While scientific studies have demonstrated green water for marine finfish larviculture see. the ability to manipulate the nutritional compo section 2 3 4 are often produced extensively us . sition of individual microalgal strains e g n 3 ing outdoor ponds or tanks in South East Asia . HUFA content of Nannochloropsis sp Pal et al whereas European aquaculture hatcheries typi . 2011 in practice hatchery operators focus on cally cultivate individual microalgal strains in . maintaining uninterrupted supplies of microalgae tensively in bubble or airlift columns or closed. by avoiding system crashes or culture contamina PBRs Shields 2001 . tion Delivery of a balanced diet to the aquacul ,ture species is generally achieved by supplying. a mixture of different microalgal strains guided 2 3 Role of Microalgae in Aquaculture. Hatcheries, by typical published nutritional profiles for these. strains e g Brown et al 1997 2 3 1 Microalgae as a Feed Source for Filter . feeding Aquaculture Species,2 2 Methods of Microalgae Cultivation for. Aquaculture It is a common reproductive strategy among ma . rine invertebrates to broadcast high numbers of, In approximate order of engineering complexity microscopic larvae into the water column to en .
and achievable culture density the main types of sure widespread distribution of offspring These. microalgal cultivation system used in aquacul planktonic larvae are different in appearance and. ture all of which are phototrophic are habit from later developmental stages and under . go a dramatic metamorphosis to the juvenile form . open ponds or tanks with or without aeration Key examples from aquaculture include bivalve. or stirring molluscs decapod crustaceans shrimps crabs. bubble or airlift columns usually oriented and lobsters sea urchins and polychaete worms . vertically or less frequently horizontally In many cases the larvae are filter feeders . closed photobioreactors PBRs most com relying on microalgae throughout their plank . monly tubular in configuration or less com tonic phase e g bivalve molluscs some sea. monly flat panel PBRs urchins and polychaete worms or alternatively. These methods of microalgal cultivation have been switching from filter feeding to predating on. regularly reviewed from an aquaculture standpoint zooplankton during larval development e g pe . over the past 15 years Borowitzka 1997 Duerr et naeid shrimps These life history strategies re . al 1998 Muller Fuega et al 2003a Zmora Rich quire the aquaculturist to supply microalgae dur . mond 2004 Tredici et al 2009 During this pe ing some if not all of the hatchery phase Tredici. riod no major technological step changes are dis et al 2009 provide a recent overview of the. cernible although there is a notable trend towards typical microalgal strains and feeding strategies. greater adoption of closed PBRs and for semi con used for these groups of aquatic invertebrates . Technikfolgenabsch tzung Theorie und Praxis 21 Jg Heft 1 Juli 2012 Seite 25. SCHWERPUNKT, For bivalve mollusc production the obli to nutrition related developmental abnormalities. gation to provide microalgae continues into the e g Atlantic halibut copepods offer a suitable. nursery phase since bivalves are obligate filter alternative zooplankton Concei o et al 2010 . feeders throughout their life history Bivalve However the lower culture densities achievable. hatcheries therefore tend to possess amongst the for copepods compared to rotifers Artemia impose. highest microalgal production capacity of any practical limitations on supplying them at larger. form of food aquaculture with particular atten scales of intensive aquaculture production . tion being paid to hygiene status to avoid crashes Hatchery production of rotifers was ini . or transfer of pathogenic organisms to the shell tially based on feeding with live microalgae and . fish Aji 2011 Combinations of Bacillariophyte or baker s yeast Commonly used microalgal. and Prymnesiophyte microalgal strains are the strains for this purpose are Nannochloropsis sp . most commonly used feed source for bivalves Tetraselmis sp Pavlova lutheri and Isochrysis. both for hatchery nursery rearing and condition galbana Concei o et al 2010 Commercial. ing of broodstock Helm et al 2004 off the shelf formulations have been developed. and are now widely used as alternatives to live, microalgae and yeast Depending on their spe . 2 3 2 Microalgae as a Feed Source for, Zooplanktonic Live Prey. cific formulation these products are intended to, optimise growth and reproduction of the rotifers. Where larvae of aquaculture species are preda and or to enhance their final nutritional compo . tory rather than filter feeding e g finfish larvae sition before feeding to larvae This latter proc . and decapod crustacean larvae the most common ess is widely referred to as enrichment Even. husbandry strategy is to feed with zooplanktonic where hatcheries have adopted such artificial. live prey rather than formulated inert diets This feeds for mass rotifer cultivation it is common to. reflects the technological challenge and high retain rotifer master cultures on live microalgae . costs of providing nutritionally balanced digest as this simplifies hygiene maintenance and less . ible feeds in the correct physical form for small ens the likelihood of the cultures crashing . planktonic larvae whose digestive capacity is The use of brine shrimp Artemia sp in. only partially developed Concei o et al 2010 aquaculture is based on supplies of resistant. Thanks to innovations begun in the 1960s cysts that are commercially collected from hy . aquaculture hatcheries almost ubiquitously use persaline lakes Dhont Stappen 2003 These. rotifers Brachionus sp followed by brine shrimp cysts represent a convenient storable product for. Artemia sp as the key zooplanktonic live prey aquaculture hatcheries from which planktonic. for larval finfish and decapods Bengtson 2003 nauplii can be hatched on demand Hatcheries. These zooplankton are not the natural prey of the do not typically provide live microalgae to these. aquaculture species and have suboptimal nutri early stages of Artemia since formulated prod . tional composition however their ease of culture ucts have been developed to grow and enrich the. rapid reproduction rates high stocking densities nauplii Dhont Stappen 2003 . outweighs their nutritional shortcomings in most Where copepods are used as an initial prey. cases Lubzens and Zmora 2003 Dhont Stappen organism live microalgae remain the preferred. 2003 Concei o et al 2010 Extensive research diet for planktonic groups orders Calanoida and. and product development has gone into improv Cyclopoida whereas benthic copepods order. ing rotifer and brine shrimp nutritional quality by Harpacticoida are more amenable to cultivating. manipulating their diet in particular to enhance on inert feeds St ttrup 2003 . n 3 HUFA content e g by microalgal strain se Among the products used as feed for aquacul . lection or by incorporating dried microalgal bio ture live prey are several heterotrophically grown. mass into formulated inert diets marine microorganisms Tredici et al 2009 The. Where the aquaculture species of interest are first such product to reach the aquaculture market. either too small to accept rotifers as a first prey e g was the DHA rich fungal thraustochytrid Schizo . some tropical snappers and groupers or are prone chytrium which was initially developed as a hu . Seite 26 Technikfolgenabsch tzung Theorie und Praxis 21 Jg Heft 1 Juli 2012. SCHWERPUNKT, man nutritional supplement but is also now widely ray of PVC bristles Silva Aciares Riquelme.
used for aquaculture live prey production enrich 2008 . ment in powder form The dinoflagellate Cryp ,thecodinium cohnii has been similarly exploited. 2 3 4 Addition of Microalgae to Fish Larval,owing to its high DHA content . Rearing Tanks, 2 3 3 Benthic Microalgae as a Feed Source for The practice of rearing marine finfish larvae in. Gastropod Molluscs and Echinoderms the presence of microalgae is commonplace and. is typically although not exclusively associated, Unlike bivalve molluscs the larvae of abalone with higher survival and growth rates than when. gastropoda and some species of sea urchin larvae are reared in clear water Muller Feuga et. echinoidea do not require microalgae during al 2003b Tredici et al 2009 Concei o et al . their planktonic phase relying instead on internal 2010 In the so called green water technique . yolk reserves for energy This simplifies hatch microalgae and zooplankton are bloomed within. ery rearing procedures no microalgae required ponds or large tanks into which the fish larvae are. however abalone and urchins do initially graze stocked This rearing method can be based on natu . on benthic microalgae those living on surfaces ral microalgal assemblages which are encouraged. when they settle out from the plankton Heas to bloom by fertilizer addition Shields 2001 Al . man Savva 2007 Azad et al 2010 ternatively cultured microalgal strains can be inoc . Natural assemblages of benthic diatoms are ulated into rearing tanks for this purpose provided. algae production and use in hatcheries including recent industry trends and future outlook Alongside these well established applica tions for micro and macroalgae in aquaculture hatcheries there is currently a drive to exploit algae in formulated animal feeds both for aqua culture species and terrestrial livestock To date

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