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Aerodynamics for,Engineering Students,Sixth Edition. E L Houghton,P W Carpenter,Steven H Collicott,Daniel T Valentine. AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON,NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO. SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO,Butterworth Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier. Butterworth Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier,225 Wyman Street Waltham MA 02451 USA.
The Boulevard Langford Lane Kidlington Oxford OX5 1GB UK. c 2013 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved, No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic. or mechanical including photocopying recording or any information storage and retrieval system. without permission in writing from the publisher Details on how to seek permission further information. about the Publisher s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the. Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency can be found at our. website www elsevier com permissions, This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher other. than as may be noted herein, Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing As new research and experience broaden our. understanding changes in research methods professional practices or medical treatment may become necessary. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using. any information methods compounds or experiments described herein In using such information or methods. they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others including parties for whom they have a. professional responsibility, To the fullest extent of the law neither the Publisher nor the authors contributors or editors assume any liability. for any injury and or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability negligence or otherwise or. from any use or operation of any methods products instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. MATLABr is a trademark of The MathWorks Inc and is used with permission The MathWorks does not. warrant the accuracy of the text or exercises in this book This book s use or discussion of MATLABr software. or related products does not constitute endorsement or sponsorship by The MathWorks of a particular. pedagogical approach or particular use of the MATLABr software. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Aerodynamics for engineering students E L Houghton et al 6th ed. ISBN 978 0 08 096632 8 pbk, 1 Aerodynamics 2 Airplanes Design and construction I Houghton E L Edward Lewis.
TL570 H64 2012,629 132 5 dc23,2011047033,British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. For information on all Butterworth Heinemann publications. visit our Web site at www elsevierdirect com,Printed in the United States. 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1, This volume is intended for engineering students in introductory aerodynamics. courses and as a reference useful for reviewing foundational topics for graduate. The sequence of subject development in this edition begins with definitions and. concepts and then moves on to incompressible flow low speed airfoil and wing. theories compressible flow high speed wing theories viscous flow boundary layers. transition and turbulence wing design and concludes with propellers and propulsion. Reinforcing or teaching first the units dimensions and properties of the physical. quantities used in aerodynamics addresses concepts that are perhaps both the simplest. and the most critical Common aeronautical definitions are covered before lessons. on the aerodynamic forces involved and how the forces drive our definitions of air. foil characteristics The fundamental fluid dynamics required for the development of. aerodynamic studies and the analysis of flows within and around solid boundaries for. air at subsonic speeds is explored in depth in the next two chapters Classical airfoil. and wing theories for the estimation of aerodynamic characteristics in these regimes. are then developed, Attention is then turned to the aerodynamics of high speed air flows in Chapters 6. and 7 The laws governing the behavior of the physical properties of air are applied. to the transonic and supersonic flow speeds and the aerodynamics of the abrupt. changes in the flow characteristics at these speeds shock waves are explained. Then compressible flow theories are applied to explain the significant effects on. wings in transonic and supersonic flight and to develop appropriate aerodynamic. characteristics Viscosity is a key physical quantity of air and its significance in aero. dynamic situations is next considered in depth The powerful concept of the boundary. layer and the development of properties of various flows when adjacent to solid. boundaries create a body of reliable methods for estimating the fluid forces due to. viscosity In aerodynamics these forces are notably skin friction and profile drag. Chapters on wing design and flow control and propellers and propulsion respec. tively bring together disparate aspects of the previous chapters as appropriate This. permits discussion of some practical and individual applications of aerodynamics. Obviously aerodynamic design today relies extensively on computational meth. ods This is reflected in part in this volume by the introduction where appropriate of. descriptions and discussions of relevant computational techniques However this text. is aimed at providing the fundamental fluid dynamics or aerodynamics background. necessary for students to move successfully into a dedicated course on computation. methods or experimental methods As such experience in computational techniques. or experimental techniques are not required for a complete understanding of the aero. dynamics in this book The authors urge students onward to such advanced courses. and exciting careers in aerodynamics,xvi Preface,ADDITIONAL RESOURCES.
A set of m files for the MATLAB routines in the book are available by visiting. the book s companion site www elsevierdirect com and searching on houghton. Instructors using the text for a course may access the solutions manual and image. bank by visiting www textbooks elsevier com and following the online registration. instructions,ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, The authors thank the following faculty who provided feedback on this project. through survey responses review of proposal and or review of chapters. Alina Alexeenko Purdue University,S Firasat Ali Tuskegee University. David Bridges Mississippi State University, Russell M Cummings California Polytechnic State University. Paul Dawson Boise State University, Simon W Evans Ph D Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Richard S Figliola Clemson University, Timothy W Fox California State University Northridge.
Ashok Gopalarathnam North Carolina State University. Dr Mark W Johnson University of Liverpool, Brian Landrum Ph D University of Alabama in Huntsville. Gary L Solbrekken University of Missouri,Mohammad E Taslim Northeastern University. Valana Wells Arizona State University, Professors Collicott and Valentine are grateful for the opportunity to continue the. work of Professors Houghton and Carpenter and thank Joe Hayton Publisher for. the invitation to do so In addition the professional efforts of Mike Joyce Editorial. Program Manager Heather Tighe Production Manager and Kristen Davis Designer. are instrumental in the creation of this sixth edition. The products of one s efforts are of course the culmination of all of one s experi. ences with others Foremost amongst the people who are to be thanked most warmly. for support are our families Collicott and Valentine thank Jennifer Sarah and Rachel. and Mary Clara and Zach T respectively for their love and for the countless joys. that they bring to us Our Professors and students over the decades are major con. tributors to our aerodynamics knowledge and we are thankful for them The authors. share their deep gratitude for God s boundless love and grace for all. Basic Concepts and,Definitions 1,To work intelligently Orville and Wilbur Wright. one needs to know the effects of variations, incorporated in the surfaces The pressures on squares.
are different from those on rectangles circles triangles or. The shape of the edge also makes a difference,from The Structure of the Plane Muriel Rukeyser. LEARNING OBJECTIVES, Review the fundamental principles of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. required to investigate the aerodynamics of airfoils wings and airplanes. Recall the concepts of units and dimension and how they are applied to solving. and understanding engineering problems, Learn about the geometric features of airfoils wings and airplanes and how the. names for these features are used in aerodynamics communications. Explore the aerodynamic forces and moments that act on airfoils wings and. airplanes and learn how we describe these loads quantitatively in dimensional. form and as coefficients,1 1 INTRODUCTION, The study of aerodynamics requires a number of basic definitions including an. unambiguous nomenclature and an understanding of the relevant physical proper. ties related mechanics and appropriate mathematics Of course these notions are. common to other disciplines and it is the purpose of this chapter to identify and. explain those that are basic and pertinent to aerodynamics and that are to be used in. the remainder of the volume, Aerodynamics for Engineering Students DOI 10 1016 B978 0 08 096632 8 00001 1.
c 2013 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved,2 CHAPTER 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions. 1 1 1 Basic Concepts, This text is an introductory investigation of aerodynamics for engineering students 1. Hence we are interested in theory to the extent that it can be practically applied. to solve engineering problems related to the design and analysis of aerodynamic. The design of vehicles such as airplanes has advanced to the level where we. require the wealth of experience gained in the investigation of flight over the past. 100 years We plan to investigate the clever approximations made by the few who. learned how to apply mathematical ideas that led to productive methods and useful. formulas to predict the dynamical behavior of aerodynamic shapes We need to. learn the strengths and more important the limitations of the methodologies and. discoveries that came before us, Although we have extensive archives of recorded experience in aeronautics there. are still many opportunities for advancement For example significant advancements. can be achieved in the state of the art in design analysis As we develop ideas. related to the physics of flight and the engineering of flight vehicles we will learn. the strengths and limitations of existing procedures and existing computational tools. commercially available or otherwise We will learn how airfoils and wings perform. and how we approach the designs of these objects by analytical procedures. The fluid of primary interest is air which is a gas at standard atmospheric con. ditions We assume that air s dynamics can be effectively modeled in terms of the. continuum fluid dynamics of an incompressible or simple compressible fluid Air is. a fluid whose local thermodynamic state we assume is described either by its mass. density constant or by the ideal gas law In other words we assume air behaves. as either an incompressible or a simple compressible medium respectively The con. cepts of a continuum an incompressible substance and a simple compressible gas. will be elaborated on in Chapter 2, The equation of state known as the ideal gas law relates two thermodynamic. properties to other properties and in particular the pressure It is. where p is the thermodynamic pressure is mass density T is absolute thermo. dynamic temperature and R 287 J kg K or R 1716 ft lb slug R 1 Pressure. and temperature are relatively easy to measure For example standard barometric. pressure at sea level is p 101 325 Pascals where a Pascal Pa is 1N m2 In Impe. rial units this is 14 675 psi where psi is lb in2 and 1 psi is equal to 6895 Pa note that. has long been common in engineering schools for an elementary macroscopic thermodynamics. course to be completed prior to a compressible flow course The portions of this text that discuss com. pressible flow assume that such a course precedes this one and thus the discussions assume some. elementary experience with concepts such as internal energy and enthalpy. 1 1 Introduction 3, 14 675 psi is equal to 2113 2 lb ft2 The standard temperature is 288 15 K or 15 C.
where absolute zero equal to 273 15 C is used In Imperial units this is 519 R or. 59 F where absolute zero equal to 459 67 F is used Substituting into the ideal gas. law we get for the standard density 1 225 kg m3 in SI units and 0 00237. slugs ft3 in Imperial units This is the density of air at sea level given in the table of. data for atmospheric air the table for standard atmospheric conditions is provided in. Appendix B, The thermodynamic properties of pressure temperature and density are assumed. to be the properties of a mass point particle of air at a location x x y z in space. at a particular instant in time t We assume the measurement volume to be suf. To protect the rights of the author s and publisher we inform you that this PDF is an uncorrected proof for internal business use only by the author s editor s

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