Aalborg Universitet Teatro Olimpico by Andrea Palladio an

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Teatro Olimpico by Andrea Palladio an iconic stage scenario. and the diffused lightning system by Mariano Fortuny. enhancing the aura of mystery in the Wagnerian universe. My paper deals with the origins of stage design experienced through architecture pointing out that. the term scenography includes all of the elements that contribute to establishing an atmosphere and. mood for a theatrical presentation lighting sound set and costume design. Historically scenography has evolved from roots in the classical antiquity and notably connections to. the architects of the Renaissance era largely due to the theatrical activity in Eastern Europe in the. twentieth century creating a historical interrelation between architecture and scenography However. the separation of stage design from architecture is a modern notion deriving less specialization and. cross pollination of design disciplines, My approach considers this relationship between scenography and architecture firstly taking Andrea. Palladio one of the most famous architects of the sixteenth century into a holistic exploration. Palladio designed the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza and its infrequent permanent sets at the end of his. illustrious career It is still a unique example to learn from Palladio said A room has to be for the. eye as music is for the ear I put up the question why the relationship between scenography and. architecture by time became forged, The annotation is interesting scale drawings of a plan section and elevations and scale models. historically architecture has been expressed this way but could the essential difference be that the. stage is a fictional universe a neutral space for imagined places Yet the modern theatre owes much. to its historical and traditional connections with architecture and lighting and sound design have. been tossed into the mix because technology has made it possible to control and reproduce them. along with set and costume design, My paper takes the term scenography further into debate Focusing on this historical interrelation. between architecture and scenography I introduce Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo who was the rarest. of theatre designers he created both scenic costume and unique lighting designs in his Lab that he. establish in 1912 in the Palazzo Pesaro degli Orfei in Venice Fortuny worked untiringly in this. marvelous laboratory shutting himself away from the world he dedicated himself to diverse and. ambitious projects His innovations in developing electrical lighting instruments and electrical. installation protocol revolutionized how theatres attacked the technical limitations of this newly. developed technology One cannot help being aroused by his contemporary innovations in textile. design dyeing techniques and clothing designs, Fortuny was greatly influenced by Richard Wagner in his theatrical settings who in turn had a very. intense relationship with the city of Venice Fortuny went on to do much work in the theater. specifically related to lighting and set design, My paper deals through these two designers of historical iconic theatre scenarios with scenic design.
as a holistic exploration of Opera Set Designs, Keywords Iconic Theatres Light design Architecture Andrea Palladio Mariano Fortuny. Fortuny was fascinated by the idea of lighting the Wagnerian oeuvre especially the Ring. cycle in new and experimental ways He felt strongly that the great thundering God Wotan. would never appear as Wagner had conceived him if he was not properly lit Deschodt. 2000 p 125, The real dream of the Palladio s Teatro Olimpico is that of always referring to something. other than itself while remaining constantly itself with or without performances as. monument and as theatre as fake theatre since it in the last analysis and in its own. small a sublime caricature of the great ancient theatre of marble Rigon 2004 p 70. Two worlds separated by centuries both affecting and entangling the stage as a space for imagined. places Can the question whether the origins of stage design be experienced through architecture be. answered by confronting two unique creators two designers of iconic stage scenarios and. techniques separated by several centuries in time Andrea Palladio and Mariano Fortuny. It is my thesis that the term scenography includes all of the elements that contribute to establishing. an atmosphere and mood for a theatrical presentation involving lighting sound set and costume. design Taking the term scenography further into debate by focusing on the historical interrelation. between architecture and scenography I introduce the two famous creators and their works. Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo who lived in Venice was the rarest of theatre designers he created. both scenic costume and lighting designs 1 His innovations in developing electrical lighting. instruments and electrical installation protocol revolutionised how theatres tackled the technical. limitations of this newly developed technology, Fortuny was called the little Leonardo and the Magician of Venice a felicitous name for the artist. with multiple talents and paradoxical nature 2 It is difficult not to be thrilled by his innovations in. textile design dyeing techniques and clothing designs Marcel Proust described that the gowns. were like the theatrical designs of Sert Bakst and Benois who at that moment were recreating in the. Russian ballet the most cherished periods of art with the aid of works of art impregnated with their. spirit and yet original These Fortuny gowns writes Proust faithfully antique but markedly original. brought before the eye like a stage setting with an even greater suggestiveness than a setting since. the setting was left to the imagination that Venice loaded with the gorgeous East from which they. had been taken of which they were even more than a relic in the shrine of Saint Mark suggesting. Mariano Fortuny was born in Granada in 1871 His father Mariano Fortuny y Marsal was a distinguished painter and his mother. Cecilia de Madrazo came from a family of artists architects and critics Byatt 2016 p 6. www annamariefisker dk, the sun and a group of turbaned heads the fragmentary mysterious and complementary colour. Proust 2006 p 748, Among these designs was the Delphos gown that was a finely pleated silk dress first created in.
1907 It was inspired by and named after a classical Greek statue the Charioteer of Delphi Fortuny. was amidst the very first designers to propose a loose body skimming silhouette free of corsets. and many women were delighted and much enchanted by wearing such a dress Carrier 2009 p. The Delphos gowns were imported to Paris by the couturier Paul Poiret and the fashion house. Babani that sold them to actresses such as Eleonora Duse The gowns are still desirable and the. collectable pieces are sold at world record prices. Fortuny was greatly influenced by Richard Wagner in his theatrical settings in Bayreuth Fortuny s. eyes were opened by Wagner to the possibilities and needs of the theatre During the early 1890 s. the costumes and scenery of the Tetralogy 3 and of Wagner s other works were those that the. composer had used during his lifetime Fortuny was startled that the same scenery was being used. in the Tetralogy as had been used for its first performance in the presence of Ludwig II of Bavaria in. 1876 The contradiction between this naturalistic scenery and the spiritual or metaphysical music of. Wagner was completely at odds with the spirit of Gesamtkunstwerk Around 1893 only a year after. his first visit to Bayreuth Fortuny began his first experiments with light and its effects. A tetralogy from Greek four and discourse is a compound work that is made up of four distinct works The name comes from. the Attic theater in which a tetralogy was a group of three tragedies followed by a satyr play all by one author to be played in one. sitting at the Dionysia as part of a competition Wagner s tetralogy the ring of the Nibelung is among the famous ones Rehm 1994. Figure 1 Project for light application Model for the Bayreuth Theatre 1903 experiments with painted mirrors to. add light reflection Mariano Fortuny at Palazzo Fortuny Venice Photo Mark Pimlott. During the latter part of the nineteenth century light had been transformed through the harnessing of. electricity Suddenly the mystic light of the cathedrals the sensual light of the Venetian palazzi and. the mysterious light of the gas lit streets became full of new possibilities Osma 1994 p 58. By 1900 electricity was taking over and several companies were offering to install the new power. wherever it was wanted in factories hotels workshops and even in private dwellings Nor was its. potential overlooked by the artists of the day as Fortuny himself exclaimed some years later Do. you know of any mystery more beautiful than electricity Tumiati 1931. The English novelist A S Byatt accentuates that to think about Fortuny is to think about light Light. reflected from silk and velvet and flesh light on water and stone airy light dense light and almost. infinitely coloured light Byatt 2016 p 56, As mentioned by Byatt Fortuny invented and refined a system of reflected electric light for the stage. a dome white at first and then with mixed and reflected colours whereas Wagner s operas in the. days of gas lighting had had endless painted backdrops Byatt 2016 p 63. With this invention Fortuny was now able both to compose the setting onstage conducting light as. one conducts music and to do away with the empty spaces between elements of the painted sets. He began with a white dome but moved soon on to a collapsible light one Osma 1994 p 166. For some time however Fortuny s thoughts had been turning back to his old idea of a universal. theatre that would revitalise dramatic art He had already drawn up several plans for his friend. Gabriele D Annunzio the Italian writer and poet at the beginning of the century and now started. working on a large maquette of the project The scale model reproduced Fortuny s vision in detail It. revealed an enormous amphitheatre capable of being adapted to every kind of spectacle which. bore traces of Greek and Roman influence and recalled elements of Palladio s Olympic Theatre in. Vicenza Osma 1994 p167, Alike the Olympic Theatre the back of the auditorium was bounded by a great loggia adorned with. statues An awning like the velarium of ancient Roman theatres retained sound and protected the. spectators from bad weather but was also designed to control the natural light acting as an. additional stage effect The theatre included the Fortuny dome and indirect lighting system thereby. succeeding in transferring in the field of lighting that concept of an association between the stage. action and the public which in the Greek theatre was constituted by the orchestra chorus Osma. 1994 p 166, The dome enclosed the whole stage but an opening at the centre let in natural light overhead that. could be made work with the artificial light in the theatre to produce harmonies and contrasts both. on the stage and in the auditorium It was to be in Fortuny s words a theatre in the sky where. people feel really out of this world Osma 1994 p 167. On 28 September 1901 D Annunzio departed for Vicenza leaving Eleonora Duse with whom he. both had an intensive collaboration as well as an affair in Venice Fortuny followed him the next day. They studied the Olympic Theatre and discussed the possibilities of adapting it for one of. D Annunzio s plays but there were technical difficulties and the plan was never realized. The visit made a great impact on Fortuny and he began seriously to consider the idea of creating a. new type of theatrical building Osma 1994 p 74, As the originality and modernity of Andrea Palladio s creative design did not escape either. D Annunzio nor Fortuny so will it not escape the modern visitor argues Maria Elisa Avagnina. director of the Olympic Theatre in Vicenza Avagnina 2005 p 18. An argument one must agree with feeling a kind of conceptive energy entering the theatre that. seems unleashed by the meeting of an abstract model and real physical requirements. Soon after his visit to Vicenza Fortuny returned to continue work on his dome and by the beginning. of 1902 he had produced his first large scale model which measured five meters in diameter This. early version already incorporated the two features that Fortuny considered essential it could be. folded so as to take up as little space as possible and it was easily moveable Osma 1994 p 75. During the 1920s Fortuny s contribution to the theatre gained widespread recognition He had spent. a great deal of time improving his dome and it was now used in many theatres notably in France. Germany and Russia Italy however was the first to grasp its full potential and his efforts were. crowned by the installation of a large dome in the country s most famous opera house La Scala of. Milan It was 22 metres in diameter and was composed of white sized cotton of the kind used for. Zeppelins stretched over a metal framework that contained the various functional and support. mechanisms The dome was electrically controlled and could fold and unfold like a giant accordion. in the space of 90 seconds and was inaugurated on 7 January 1922 with the production of Fortuny s. favourite Wagnerian opera Parsifal, The lights reflected against the white cupola and enveloped the whole stage creating an.
atmosphere which must surely have fulfilled the composer s dream of uniting painting music and. The Delphos gowns were imported to Paris by the couturier Paul Poiret and the fashion house Babani that sold them to actresses such as Eleonora Duse The gowns are still desirable and the collectable pieces are sold at world record prices Fortuny was greatly influenced by Richard Wagner in his theatrical settings in Bayreuth Fortuny s eyes were opened by Wagner to the possibilities and

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