a lt h amp Medi Journal of Health amp Medical Informatics

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Citation Woldu MA Lenjissa JL 2014 Drug Informatics from Evolution to the Present Outlook J Health Med Informat 5 161 doi 10 4172 2157. 7420 1000161,Page 2 of 8,appropriate safety mechanisms are put in place 5. Early applications of information technology in health care began 140. in the 1960s with a focus on financial eg generating a bill and clerical 120. eg admission discharge and transfer transactions systems 7 8 110 96. With the introduction of powerful personal computers and networking 81. technologies in the 1980s the development of more clinically oriented 61. computer systems came for health care 7, Medical informatics as a discipline is still young in particular when. compared to other medical disciplines 9 Medical Informatics is a. rapidly growing field that is concerned with applying computer science 0. 19734 19767 19808 19869 199210 2003, and information technology to medical and health data The American. Year of Survey, Medical Informatics Association defined medical informatics as all. aspects of understanding and promoting the effective organization Figure 3 Number of Drug Information Centers DICs Meeting Listed Criteria. Identified in Surveys 1973 2003 18, analysis management and use of information in health care 10.
group was established to review the state of the practice and education. Informatics is more about using technology to help people of pharmacists and report its findings 15. do cognitive tasks better than about building systems to mimic or. replace human expertise 11 Drug informatics emphasizes the use of Drug Information Center. technology as an integral tool in effectively organizing analyzing and. Drug information Service DIS is the activities function and. managing information on medication use in patients 4. projects through which the Drug Information Centers DICs achieve. The central purpose of medical informatics is the dissemination of their objectives and which constitute their programs of work DIC. two core types of information patient specific information created in is a unit designed for receiving collecting analyzing and providing. the care of patients and knowledge based information which includes unbiased accurate and up to date information about drugs and their. the scientific literature of health care 12 The promise of health use 16 DICs have existed for more than 40 years primarily affiliated. information technology HIT for improving quality and safety of with hospitals and or colleges of pharmacy Three general areas of. health care while reducing costs has caught the eye of policy makers responsibility exist service education and research In the area of. and other leaders in health care 13 service specific functions such as answering questions supporting the. Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee and preparing newsletters are. The American Society of Health System Pharmacists ASHP. frequent Educational responsibilities often include teaching pharmacy. believes that pharmacists have the unique knowledge expertise and. students drug information skills Evaluation of the services has focused. responsibility to assume a significant role in medical informatics 14. mostly on answering questions and Pharmacy and Therapeutics P T. Hence the provision of medication information is among the most. Committee functions Funding generally is provided by the institution. fundamental responsibilities of pharmacists The information may. with which the center is affiliated 17 Figure 3, be either patient specific as an integral part of pharmaceutical care. or relative to a group of patients such as in the development of a DICs play a major role in providing reliable and updated. therapeutic guideline publishing an electronic newsletter or updating information to health care professionals especially if the centers. a website 15 actions are independent from government and pharmaceutical. industry DICs must not only provide information of good quality. The responsibilities of individual pharmacists regarding the. but can also improve patient outcomes 19 Since inappropriate use. provision of medication information have changed substantially. of medicines wastes resources and seriously undermines the quality. over the years Impetus for this change was provided not only by the. of patient care The WHO recognizes independent DIC as a core. development of drug information centers and the clinical pharmacy. component of national programs to promote the rational use of drugs. concept but also by the Study Commission on Pharmacy This external. A DIC must be geared to the needs of its users Information must be. dependable timely and of the highest possible standard The center s. Imaging Informatics Research Informatics expertise should be readily accessible to all potential users 20. Clinical eld Consumer Health Purpose of Drug Information Center 16. Informatics Informatics, To provide comprehensive objective and evaluated information. Medical Clinical Public Health on drugs with a view to enhancing the rational use of drugs. Bioinformatics,Informatics Informatics,cellular and molecular. person population, To disseminate technical scientific objective information to. health care providers, Biomedical and Health To disseminate appropriate drug information to the general.
Legal Informatics Informatics Chemoinformatics, Informatics People Information Technology To generate collect analyze and maintain drug information. Figure 2 Major subcategories of the informatics field 13 To design produce and distribute drug information materials. J Health Med Inform, ISSN 2157 7420 JHMI an open access journal Volume 5 Issue 4 1000161. Citation Woldu MA Lenjissa JL 2014 Drug Informatics from Evolution to the Present Outlook J Health Med Informat 5 161 doi 10 4172 2157. 7420 1000161,Page 3 of 8, To give appropriate information on toxicology and poisoning a change in its scope 4 23 discussed in detail in chapter three. Answers given to public enquiries should be handled in conjunction. Requirements for Drug Information Centers with treating physician and results should be followed up by the center. Rational use of drugs requires access to objective drug information 16 Figures 1 3. 16 The ever growing number of pharmaceuticals the increased Therapeutic Advice Many centers offer patient related drug. amount and complexity of literature and the critical need for unbiased information as their primary activity This requires an adequate. assessment of clinical data underscore the importance of well developed understanding of disease states and therapy It also requires access to. DI skills 21 DIC require clinically trained staff with access to specialist appropriate resources for rapid support in situations where response. support In some cases drug information services can be provided in time is an important factor in delivering optimum therapy Therapeutic. conjunction with toxicology services and pharmacovigilance programs advice includes factors such as efficacy optimum dosage interactions. 20 adverse effects mode of administration effects of other disease states. DICs should be organised on a cooperative model involving a and strategies to promote adherence in chronic conditions 20. multi disciplinary team of professionals Appropriate budget source Drugs and Therapeutics Committee DTC and Formulary. staff training facilities and service quality assurance mechanisms Support Drug and Therapeutics Committees DTC is a committee. should be made available Where possible existing resources such as a essential for ensuring the rational use of drugs in hospitals 24 The. libraries computers internet and databases should be used 20 DTC comprises a group of health professionals that advices on a health. Roles of the Drug Information Centers 22 care provision on matters related to drug management 25. Receiving seeking processing information and give feedback A DTC can significantly improve drug use and reduce costs. on drug information to regional and local centers organizations in hospitals and other health care facilities in the following ways. entities related to drug manufacturing trading and using discussed in detail in chapter thirteen 20 25 26. Setting up and updating a set of database including information providing advice on all aspects of drug management. on medicines drug interactions adverse drug reactions drug developing drug policies. safety and effectiveness drug use in particular cases. evaluating and selecting drugs for the formulary list. Carrying Vertical Professional Instruction supporting. professional activities monitoring and investigating drug developing or adapting and implementing standard treatment. information activities of regional and local centers guidelines. Participating in composing publishing professional documents Prepares own list of drugs. related to drug information and pharmacovigilance assessing drug use to identify problems. Supporting under and post graduate training and continuous conducting interventions to improve drug use. training programmes, managing adverse drug reactions and medication errors. Organizing and participating in scientific research conferences. workshops training courses on drug information abroad and Informing all staff members about drug use issues policies and. in the country decisions, Organizing and participating in domestic and international Decides on the classification of drugs as prescription or OTC.
projects on medicines setting up and maintaining information on the basis of the national list on such categorization at Health. exchange with international and regional drug information and institution level And further categorizes which drugs should be. pharmacovigilance networks prescribed by whom, Supplying guidelines for using information on demand of Designs and organizes educational programs regarding drugs. health professionals enterprises and the public or to orders of and drug use. other organizations and individuals Recommend additions and deletions from the list of drugs. Function of Drug Information Centers accepted for use in the health establishments. Responding to Drug Information Enquires The primary Facilitates the establishment of Drug information unit and. function of a DIC is to respond to enquiries on therapeutic drug use assess its impact in the promotion of rational drug use. 20 The DIC shall answer drug related enquiries coming from health Prepares annual plan of action and budget. professionals and general public from any part of the country or the. world 16 Generally a five step systematic technique will be used Evaluates its annual performance. for answering drug information requests Step 1 is classification of the Gives recommendations concerning drugs to be stocked in. request Step II involves determination of exactly what information is health institution patient units or services. being requested and why and ensuring that all pertinent background. data are obtained Step III is a systematic search of the literature Initiates and coordinates Studies on problems related to rational. beginning with general references and progressing through secondary use of drugs proper distribution and labelling of medications. sources to primary articles Step IV is formulation of the accumulated Facilitates the Management of Medication Errors. data into an appropriate written of verbal response Step V involves. reclassification of the request which may be necessary if there is Drug Utilization Review Drug Utilization Reviews DUR also. J Health Med Inform, ISSN 2157 7420 JHMI an open access journal Volume 5 Issue 4 1000161. Citation Woldu MA Lenjissa JL 2014 Drug Informatics from Evolution to the Present Outlook J Health Med Informat 5 161 doi 10 4172 2157. 7420 1000161,Page 4 of 8, referred to as Drug Utilization Evaluations DUE or Medication and life threatening events such as a heart attack or liver damage 31. Utilization Evaluations MUE are defined as an authorized Table 1. structured ongoing review of healthcare provider prescribing. pharmacist dispensing and patient use of medication 27 28 to assess Patient Counselling. drug therapy appropriateness and ensure patient safety 29 It involve Patient counselling is defined as providing medication information. a comprehensive review of patients prescription and medication data orally or in written form to the patients or their representative or. before during and after dispensing to ensure appropriate medication providing proper directions of use advice on side effects storage diet. decision making and positive patient outcomes 27 and life style modifications 34 Information through counselling is. DUR has been a standard part of pharmacists practice for many essential for patients to assist in adhering to their medication regimens. years 30 DUR programs play a key role in helping managed health 35 It involves a one to one interaction between a pharmacist and. care systems understand interpret and improve the prescribing a patient and or a care giver It is interactive in nature The effective. administration and use of medications 27 counselling should encompass all the parameters to make the patient. party understand his her disease 34 Pharmacy is expected by the. Assessment of therapeutic drugs is an important function of a DIC public as the place where they find reliable health and medicines. The center must have access to the principal medical and pharmaceutical information and the pharmacist as the most qualified provider of such. journals The staff should be capable of critically assessing the medical services 36 Pharmacist s communication skills therefore needs to be. Medical Informatics Association defined medical informatics as all aspects of understanding and promoting the effective organization analysis management and use of information in health care 10 Figure 2 Informatics is more about using technology to help people do cognitive tasks better than about building systems to mimic or replace human expertise 11 Drug informatics

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