A Guide to the Control of Windblown Dust on Agricultural

A Guide To The Control Of Windblown Dust On Agricultural-Free PDF

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Table of Contents,Introduction,Why is This Guide Needed 1. Air Quality and the Quality of Life 1,The Wind Erosion Process 2. Management Strategies and Conservation Practices 3 4. Table I Key Management Practices For Fugitive Dust Control in Nevada 5. Tillage Planting and Harvest,Chemical Irrigation 6. Combining Tractor Operations 6,Equipment Modification 7. Limited Activity During a High Wind Event 7,Planting Based on Soil Moisture 8.
Reduced Tillage System 8,Surface Roughening 9,Tillage Based on Soil Moisture 10. Timing of a Tillage Operation 10,Crop Production,Artificial Wind Barrier 11. Cover Crop 11,Cross Wind Ridges 12,Cross Wind Strip Cropping 12. Cross Wind Vegetative Strips 13,Manure Application 14. Mulching 14,Multi Year Crop 15,Permanent Cover 15,Residue Management 16.
Sequential Cropping 16,Tree Shrub or Windbreak Planting 17. Non Cropland,Access Restriction 18,Aggregate Cover 19. Artificial Wind Barrier 19,Critical Area Planting 20. Manure Application 20,Reduce Vehicle Speed 21,Synthetic Particulate Suppressant 21. Track Out Control System 22,Tree Shrub or Windbreak Planting 23.
Watering 23,Appendix I Elements of a Dust Control Plan 24. Appendix II Management Practices to Control Fugitive Dust 25 26 27. References 28 29, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Offices in Nevada 30. Introduction,Why is this Guide needed, Windblown dust fugitive dust can impact the Fugitive dust is comprised of dust particles that can be. environment and cause health effects As wind introduced into the air through agricultural activities. blows over areas where soil has been recently such as soil cultivation or vehicles operating on open. disturbed soil particles become airborne often fields or dirt roadways. resulting in the loss of valuable top soil damaging Particulate matter studies have indicated that. crops and causing health problems in livestock agricultural burning fallow fields and the tillage. Fugitive dust has caused vehicle accidents due to planting and harvesting of cropland fields are major. reduced visibility damage to homes destroyed contributors to dust formation in rural areas. landscaping removed paint from vehicles and, increased the incidence of respiratory problems and Particulate matter PM can be any material except. cardiovascular conditions water however PM can exist as a mixture composed. of solid particles and liquid droplets Solid particles. Soils in agricultural production often contain are typically dust and sometimes smoke from. pesticides herbicides bacteria fungi and other agricultural burning and other wood combustion. constituents that can create health problems in sources Some of these particles are large enough to. humans and animals Fugitive dust has become an be seen as dust or dirt Others are so small they can. increasingly important issue to agricultural only be detected with a microscope PM2 5 describes. operations in Nevada due to the encroachment of the fine barely visible particles that are less than or. residential development into rural farm and ranch equal to 2 5 microns in diameter Particles that are. areas greater than 2 5 microns are referred to as PM10 which. This Guide has been prepared by the Southern Nye are 10 microns in diameter PM10 is about one. County Conservation District the Conservation seventh the diameter of a human hair. District of Southern Nevada and the High Desert, Resource Conservation and Development Council HOW SMALL IS PM10.
Inc to assist agricultural enterprises in Nevada, evaluate the potential for dust production associated. with their agricultural practices and to provide,information on practical measures to reduce dust. production This Guide discusses practical and,economical methods to reduce and prevent topsoil. from becoming airborne during agricultural activities. and can assist landowners in understanding their, role in protecting the environment their neighbors. and their employees and livestock,The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.
NRCS provided technical review and assistance in, preparation of the Guide NRCS staff are available From Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management 2004. to help identify reasonable control measures that, may be appropriate for a farm or ranching operation Because PM2 5 and PM10 are so small they can be. A listing of the NRCS field offices in Nevada is inhaled deep into the lungs In general the finer the. provided at the back of this Guide particle the deeper the penetration and the more. entrapped it can become Many health problems have, Air Quality and the Quality of Life been connected with long term exposure to PM Fine. Airborne dust is a natural process particularly in arid dust particles trapped in the lungs can aggravate. environments such as Nevada where dry windy respiratory conditions such as asthma bronchitis. conditions and sparse vegetation can result in pneumonitis wheezing and coughing and have also. substantial dust production Although fugitive dust been connected to heart conditions such as cardiac. production is a natural phenomenon human artery disease cardiac arrhythmias and heart attacks. activities can also greatly affect dust levels Sensitive populations including children the elderly. those suffering from asthma or bronchitis and people. with heart or lung disease are at higher risk of,developing problems from airborne dust. The Wind Erosion Process,From USDA Soil Conservation Service 1994.
The Wind Erosion Process, Wind erosion is a serious environmental problem It Suspension occurs when very fine soil and dust. is a common phenomenon occurring mostly in flat particles are lifted into the wind They can be thrown. bare areas having dry sandy soils or anywhere the into the air through impact with other particles or by. soil is loose dry and finely granulated Wind erosion the wind itself Once in the atmosphere these. damages land and natural vegetation by removing particles can be carried very high and transported. soil from one place and depositing it in another It over extremely long distances Soil moved by. causes soil loss dryness and deterioration of soil suspension is the most spectacular and easiest to. structure nutrient and productivity losses and air recognize of the three forms of movement. pollution Suspended dust is inevitably deposited Saltation The major volume of soil moved by the. over everything It blows on and inside homes wind is through the process of saltation In saltation. covers roads and highways and smothers crops fine soil particles are lifted into the air by the wind and. Sediment soil transport and deposition are drift horizontally across the surface increasing in. significant factors in the geological changes which velocity as they go Soil particles moved in this. occur on the land around us and over long periods of process of saltation can cause severe damage to the. time are important in the soil formation process soil surface and vegetation Soil particles travel. Soil movement is initiated as a result of wind forces approximately four times longer in distance than in. exerted against the surface of the ground For each height When they strike the surface again they either. specific soil type and surface condition there is a rebound back into the air or knock other particles into. minimum velocity required to move soil particles the air. This is called the threshold velocity Once this Creep The large particles that are too heavy to be. velocity is reached the quantity of soil moved is lifted into the air are moved through a process called. dependent upon soil particle size the cloddiness of surface creep In this process the particles are rolled. the soil particles and the wind velocity itself across the surface after coming into contact with the. Suspension saltation and surface creep are the soil particles in saltation. three types of soil movement that occur during wind Surface soil texture is the best indicator of a given. erosion While soil can be blown away at virtually any site s susceptibility to wind erosion Coarse textured. height above the ground the majority over 93 of single grained sandy soils are most susceptible to. soil movement takes place at or below three feet soil loss due to wind erosion. Management Strategies and Conservation Practices, Windblown PM10 emissions from agricultural fields Properly managed crop residues carefully timed soil. can originate from practices that break up or tillage and accurately placed crop strips and wind. pulverize the top soil leaving bare ground susceptible barriers can all effectively reduce wind erosion. to wind erosion Establishment of windbreaks crop strips and other types. The quantity of PM10 that is generated is closely of wind barriers address the first principle of wind erosion. linked to the management of soils and the amount of control Additionally cover provided by plants and crop. mechanical disturbance Soil disturbances alter soil residues protects soil particles on the surface by. structure by breaking up soil aggregates and allowing absorbing a portion of the direct force of the wind. particles smaller than 10 m in size to be easily transmitted to the soil Cultural treatments soil. suspended in the air by wind amendments and other techniques that increase the. non erodible fraction of the surface soil utilize the second. Most methods for controlling PM10 and dust emissions principle of wind erosion control Soil modifications. from agricultural fields correspond to management include using soil stabilizers that bind soil particles and. and cultural practices implemented for wind erosion maintain non erodible aggregates or clods on the. control and are based on principles that contain or surface and creating ridge roughness and soil. slow soil movement from fields cloddiness with tillage implements. Methods of wind erosion control are based on two As discussed above fugitive dust is often a by. principles 1 reducing the direct force of wind on product of agricultural production However there are. erodible soil particles and 2 modifying the soil cost effective steps that can be implemented to. surface to resist wind action or limit particle minimize dust production during typical farming or. movement ranching operations This Guide focuses on those. management actions and cultural practices proven, effective for controlling wind erosion on vulnerable. agricultural areas,Dust Storm on Farmland, Implementation of the practices and management For convenience in presentation management. actions presented in this Guide is not calculated to actions and conservation practices for the control of. completely eliminate dust emissions but is expected PM10 emissions listed in this Guide have been. to reduce wind erosion to reasonable levels grouped into three categories tillage planting and. Reasonable fugitive dust control measures take into harvest crop production including hay and. consideration the cost to the grower using these non cropland areas The tillage planting and. practices and balance them against health and other harvest category groups field operations such as. benefits of improved air quality plowing disking land leveling harrowing planting. and harvesting that stir up loose soil The crop, The practices recommended in this Guide have been production category groups practices and.
proven to reduce wind erosion significantly below that management that are appropriate once a crop is. which would occur with bare tilled soil under similar mature enough to provide ground cover or to act as a. conditions One or more of the listed practices may windbreak The grouping of practices and. be implemented to address a particular fugitive dust management for non cropland areas relate to land. problem but the individual landowner must ultimately that is not in crop production but is an integral. determine the suitability of a given practice for his or component of the agricultural operation Non. her farm or ranch cropland areas include equipment and storage yards. Not all practices will work equally well for their private roads and irrigation drainage system. intended purpose on every site because of variations infrastructure. in wind soils cropping systems and moisture Table I provides a listing of the management. conditions and in some cases the management strategies and conservation practices recognized in. approaches of individual growers Because of the this Guide and the category into which these. many factors that affect vulnerability to wind erosion practices have been grouped. the effectiveness of a given practice on a given field. can be extremely variable The dynamics of how Appendix II offers a more comprehensive listing of. cropping systems and weather interact may produce management and practices that can be applied to. conditions when certain practices will not be effective control PM10 emissions. at controlling windblown dust and associated PM10,Dust blowing across a hay field. Key Management Strategies,and Conservation Practices. for Fugitive Dust Control in Nevada,Tillage Planting and. Crop Production Non Cropland Areas, Chemical irrigation Artificial wind barrier Access restriction. Combining tractor,Cover crop Aggregate cover,operations.
Equipment modification Cross wind ridges Artificial wind barrier. PRACTICE or MANAGEMENT STRATEGY,Limited activity during a. Fugitive Dust A Guide to the Control of Windblown Dust on Agricultural Lands in Nevada January 2007

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