A Framework for Documenting the Effects of the Mountain

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A Framework for Documenting the Effects,of the Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak in. Sub boreal Forests of Northern British Columbia,E P 1369 Establishment Report. Ben Heemskerk Craig DeLong and Tanya Milner,Ministry of Forests and Range. Forest Science Program,The Best Place on Earth, The use of trade rm or corporation names in this publication is for the information and convenience of the reader. Such use does not constitute an of cial endorsement or approval by the Government of British Columbia of any product. or service to the exclusion of any others that may also be suitable Contents of this report are presented for discussion. purposes only Funding assistance does not imply endorsement of any statements or information contained herein by. the Government of British Columbia Uniform Resource Locators urls addresses and contact information contained. in this document are current at the time of printing unless otherwise noted. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Data. Heemskerk Ben, A framework for documenting the e ects of the Mountain pine beetle outbreak in sub boreal forests of northern.
British Columbia E P 369 Establishment report,Technical report 046. Prepared for B C Ministry of Forest and Range Research Branch T p verso. Includes bibliographical references p,ISBN 978 0 7726 5967 5. Forest dynamics British Columbia Northern 2 Forest monitoring British Columbia Northern. 3 Forest management Environmental aspects British Columbia Northern 4 Forest regeneration British. Columbia Northern 5 Forest productivity British Columbia Northern 6 Pine Diseases and pests British. Columbia Northern 7 Mountain pine beetle British Columbia Northern I DeLong C II Milner Tanya. III British Columbia Forest Science Program IV British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Range Research. Branch V Title VI Series Technical report British Columbia Forest Science Program 46. SB945 M78H33 2008 634 9 75 6768 C2008 960074 6, Heemskerk B H C DeLong and T Milner 2008 A framework for documenting the e ects of the mountain pine. beetle outbreak in sub boreal forests of Northern British Columbia E P 369 establishment report B C Min For. Range Res Br Victoria B C Tech Rep 046 www for gov bc ca hfd pubs Docs Tr Tr046 htm. Prepared by,Ben Heemskerk,Northern Interior Forest Region. 3333 Tatlow Road,Smithers BC V0J 2N0,Craig DeLong,Northern Interior Forest Region.
5th Floor 0 4th Ave,Prince George BC V2L 3H9,Tanya Milner. Northern Interior Forest Region,5th Floor 0 4th Ave. Prince George BC V2L 3H9,Prepared for,B C Ministry of Forests and Range. Research Branch,Victoria BC v8w 9c2,2008 Province of British Columbia. Copies of this report may be obtained depending upon supply from. Government Publications,PO Box 9452 Stn Prov Govt,Victoria BC v8w 9v7.
800 663 6 05,www publications gov bc ca, For more information on Forest Science Program publications visit our web site at. www for gov bc ca scripts hfd pubs hfdcatalog index asp. This report outlines the objectives study design methods of data collection. and other details relevant to the establishment of Experimental Project. EP 369 A Framework for Documenting the E ects of the Mountain Pine. Beetle in Sub boreal Forests of Northern British Columbia In 995 through. 997 48 plots were established in mature pine leading stands a ected by. mountain pine beetle MPB 38 plots and MPB followed by wild re 0. plots All plots will remain unharvested and are designed to examine eco. logical changes subsequent to these disturbances The information from these. plots will inform science on what ecological changes result from these distur. bances in the sub boreal forest landscape and will provide critical. information such as growth rate of live understorey to land managers. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, We would like to acknowledge the assistance of Chris Baird Rachel Botting. Katharina Bruser Sarah Burger Wiebe Nijland Dick Nakatsu Bruce Rogers. Jouni Salokivi Ken Simonar Talya Truant and Elisa Tuusa with plot estab. lishment We would also like to acknowledge the great work of Sean Barry in. determining potential sample locations and Scott Schole eld for peparing de. tailed maps for each plot Without the co operation of government agencies. and the forest industry establishment of these plots and their protection. from future harvest would not have taken place We would also like to ac. knowledge the Forest Science Program of the Forest Investment Account for. providing funds for this project We hope that this system of permanent sam. ple plots will continue to provide valuable information for researchers and. practitioners well in to the future,Abstract iii,Acknowledgements iv. Introduction,2 Objectives 2,2 Short term objectives 2. 2 2 Long term objectives 3,3 Experimental Design 3.
3 De nition of terms 3,3 2 Plot locations 3,3 3 Plot selection 5. 3 4 Installation layout 5,3 5 Measurements and records 7. 3 6 Quality control,5 Maintenance Schedule 2,6 End Results 2. References 3,Appendices,Co ordinates plot type and location information 5. 2 Field cards for data recording and coding 9,3 Mountain Pine Beetle Codes 28.
Distribution of sample sites across stand types in Vanderhoof. Forest District 5, 2 Classi cation of snag function as habitat for wildlife using. coding system 8,3 Branch order classi cation 9, 4 Log decay classes based on structural integrity and soundness of. sapwood and heartwood 9, 5 Classi cation of log function as habitat for wildlife in the. Sub Boreal Spruce biogeoclimatic zone of British Columbia 0. Small scale map of the plot locations within the Vanderhoof. Forest District 4, 2 Layout of sampling plots as adapted from the CMI procedures 6. 1 INTRODUCTION, The mountain pine beetle MPB outbreak currently spans more than 7 mil.
lion ha in British Columbia of which approximately 30 is expected never to. be salvaged For this land the Chief Forester assumes a 20 year delay in re. generation which is one of the considerations in forecasting a fall down in. timber supply approximately 5 years hence B C Ministry of Forests 2003. This estimate was based on a small sample of stands and expert opinion To. accurately predict the loss in timber yield from unsalvaged stands data are. required from a valid probability sample It is critical to accurately estimate. future timber supply in MPB a ected areas so that appropriate measures can. be taken to estimate and mitigate the fall down This outbreak o ers the op. portunity to examine the ecological social and economic bene ts and. tradeo s of three potential management options no interference 2 the. use of prescribed burning and 3 conventional timber harvesting. Based on recent studies Coates et al B C Ministry of Forests and Range. unpublished data there is a wide range in the amount and distribution of live. understorey trees in MPB a ected stands Understanding how this understo. rey responds to the increasing light levels associated with the mortality of the. overstorey is critical for predicting the future role of these stands in meeting. mid and longer term timber supply needs, Large areas of the Northern Interior landscape can or will be left unman. aged with little appreciation of their impact positive or negative on forest. values In addition wild res burned tens of thousands of hectares of beetle. killed timber in 2004 It has been noted that pine cones were completely. consumed in some areas and it is uncertain how well these areas will natu. rally regenerate, Forest plans call for the deferral of harvesting in old growth management. areas wildlife tree patches and riparian bu ers but the ability of beetle. killed stands to provide the desired habitat biodiversity remains unknown. Consequently all aspects of forest planning and the prospects for sustainable. forest management in much of the Northern Interior are a matter of specula. tion Some critical decisions must be made on where to strategically leave. unsalvaged stands for meeting land stewardship goals Data are needed on. the relative habitat value of di erent stand types a ected by MPB. Long term monitoring of stands is the most precise method of describing. structural and compositional changes over time and can provide information. over both short and long timeframes While chronosequence or space for. time substitution studies can elucidate broad trends such cross sectional. studies cannot reliably substitute for longitudinal studies in exposing the. mechanisms at play Pickett 989 The added and usually unattributed. variance of site and site history di erences make chronosequence approaches. open to criticism Fleming 999 Short term approaches cannot substitute. completely for direct long term observations of ecological phenomena. Franklin 989 This is especially true when dealing with slow processes e g. plant succession the impact of rare events e g killing frosts episodic phe. nomena e g windthrow processes with high variability and an array of. subtle processes and complex phenomena that require long term studies to. separate pattern from noise Franklin 989 Pickett 989. A number of studies have collected information similar to that for this. project The drawbacks of these studies are they do not cover mesic sites in. any other biogeoclimatic unit than the SBSdk they were not randomly select. ed so inferences from these plots across the landscape are inappropriate. and data such as functional wildlife tree type and natural regeneration in. gress were not collected They are also one time measurement plots with no. remeasurement intended Data from these plots will be useful to compare to. certain data from our plots but we will not rely on data from these plots to. satisfy our objectives due to the aforementioned limitations. Data from this system of randomly located permanent sample plots will. provide scienti cally irrefutable answers to a wide range of questions relating. to MPB stand and ecosystem dynamics This study was set up to establish a. multi purpose monitoring framework for facilitating the e cient evaluation. and reporting of stand level attributes and consequences of the outbreak The. data collected from this project will provide a much needed understanding. of ecological changes and value of unique stand features e g wildlife. trees of unsalvaged and burned unsalvaged MPB stands 2 forest regenera. tion and non crop vegetation dynamics of unmanaged and burned MPB. stands 3 timber supply regeneration delay growth and yield and biodi. versity implications of unharvested MPB stands 4 relative ecological and. economic timber supply bene ts of burning unharvested MPB stands 5. windthrow and decomposition dynamics of pine trees killed by MPB and 6. changes in lichen abundance and rate of tree fall as they a ect caribou habi. tat quality,2 OBJECTIVES, In determining ecosystem changes over time in response to MPB the study. objectives are divided into short term 3 years and long term objectives. The overarching themes of the objectives are the tree mortality regeneration. establishment and release changes in wildlife habitat value and ecological. succession, 2 1 Short term To initialize parameterize and test models to predict advanced regenera. objectives tion growth and yield for unharvested MPB killed pine stands i e. SORTIE BC TASS, To describe the extent of natural regeneration for MPB killed stands and to.
ascertain the e ect of wild re on tree recruitment rates. To determine average mortality rates of lodgepole pine by age diameter. class and to monitor understorey release, To evaluate the old growth habitat value of unsalvaged MPB stands by. comparing functional habitat characteristics e g number and type of. Wildlife Tree and CWD Types Keisker 2000 to data previously collected. in old growth stands MacKillop and Holt 2004 and, To use models being developed by the University of British Columbia and. the University of Northern British Columbia to determine initial snag fall. rates and relate to wind events, 2 2 Long term To develop tree recruitment rates by re ning growth and yield projections. objectives of advanced regeneration, To examine and compare forest and vegetation succession patterns for sal. vaged MPB stands for MPB stands that remain unsalvaged and those that. are unsalvaged and burned, To characterize changes in habitat values associated with CWD and wildlife.
trees with time, To parameterize existing deadwood models e g DeLong et al 2004 for. MPB stands, To augment lichen succession work by Williston and Chichowski and. To determine longer term tree falldown rates and relate this to animal. 3 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, 3 1 Definition of Coarse Woody Debris CWD CWD includes logs and rooted trunks at an. terms angle of 45 with the ground surface stumps 3 m in height large de. tached branches and slabs large exposed roots and upturned root masses. Taller stumps and more upright logs and rooted trunks are considered. Wildlife Trees Keisker 2000, Decay Classes Decay Classes are the nine classes of the B C Wildlife Tree. Classi cation System Wildlife Tree Committee of British Columbia. Tree Species Tree species considered hybrid white spruce Picea glauca en. gelmannii black spruce Picea mariana subalpine r Abies lasiocarpa. lodgepole pine Pinus contorta var latifolia paper birch Betul. TECHNICAL REPORT 046 2008 Ministry of Forests and Range Forest Science Program A Framework for Documenting the Effects of the Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak in

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