A comparison of the effects of paced practice and

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A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF PACED PRACTICE AND PROGRESSIVE. PRACTICE SKILLBUILDING PROCEDURES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF. STRAIGHT COPY SPEED AND ACCURACY IN BEGINNING COLLEGIATE. TYPEWRITING,Bonnie Sue Shannon,Professional Paper, S ubmi t t e d i n Pa r t i a1 Fu 1f i 1 1 me nt of t he Re q u i re me nt s. for the MST Degree in Business Education,Portland State University. Dr Leonard Robertson Advisor,Apr i1 28 19 80,ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The wr i t e r e xt e nd s s i ncere a ppr e c i a t i o n to t he f o 11 ow i ng. individuals who have contributed to this research project. Mrs Kare 1 Po 11 a rd I n s t r uct or Depart me nt of Bu s i ne s s. Education Portland State University for her invaluable moral. support and continued interest i n the improvement of typewriting. instruction,Dr Leonard Robertson Head Department of Business. Education Portland State University for stimulating and. sustaining my interest in experimental research and for his. continued support encouragement and assistance in conducting. and reporting the research A special thank you is given to him. for permitting my use of Dr West s textbook in PSU s typewritirng. classes which was necessary in order to conduct the research. Dr Leonard J West Professor Baruch City College New. York City for his unlimited enthusiasm and expertise in the. areas of typewriting and research and for his interest advice. and faith in the research of a novice,Bonnie Sue Shannon.
Dr Forbes Williams School of Education,Date Presented te F 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS,List of Tables,CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION. Need for the Study 2,Statement of the Problem 3,Delimitations and Limitations 4. Definition of Terms 5,CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. Introduction 7,Tachistoscope 7,Skillbuilder Controlled Reader 9.
Strong Pacer 11,Other Mechanical Devices 13,Summary 14. CHAPTER 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES,Selection of the Subjects 15. Research Techniques 16,Description of Treatments 18. Duration of Treatments 22,Description of Materials 25. Testing 26,Treatment of the Data 26,Summary 27, CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
Findings 28,Conclusions 35,Recommendations 36,1 Rationale for Practice and Procedures 38. 2 Sample Practice Materials 40,3 Sample Practice Schedules 42. 4 Error Allowance Chart Paced Practice 43,5 Test Timings Pretest and Posttest 44. 6 Straight Copy Measurement Procedures 48,REFERENCES 51. LIST OF TABLES,Table 3 1 Study Timetable, Table 3 2 Durations of Timings for Progressive Practice.
Table 3 3 Durations of Timings for Paced Practice, Table 4 1 Individual Pre and Posttest Speed and Accuracy. Scores and Minutes of Practice Paced Practice, Table 4 2 Indivi dual Pre and Posttest Speed and Accuracy. Scores and Minutes of Practice Progressive,Practice Group. Tab le 4 3 Measures of Central Tendency and Distribution of. Pre and Posttest Speed Scores Paced Group, Table 4 4 Measures of Central Tendency and Distribution of. Pre and Posttest Speed Scores Progressive Group, Table 4 5 Measures of Central Tendency and Distribution of.
Pre and Posttest Accuracy Scores Paced Group, Table 4 6 Measures of Central Tendency and Distribution of. Pre and Posttest Accuracy Scores Progressive,CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION. Typewriting has become a generally used skill in many. occupations and for a variety of personal uses Enrollments in. typewriting classes at the high school and collegiate levels are. high Personal use of the typewriter outweighs vocational use. as a reason for enrolling in a typewriting class As a result. students are usually enrolled in a class of one year duration or. less This short period of training time indicates the need for. efficient instructional methods that will develop the maximum. proficiency in the minimum amount of time, In some instances a beginning college level typewriting. class allows for only ten to twelve weeks of training A. considerable portion of this time is devoted to the building of. straight copy stroking skills Teachers are continuously. searching for better methods to develop speed and accuracy of. straight copy typewriting In addition teachers disagree as to. the superiority of the differing methods and materials advocated. by the authors of available typewriting textbooks, The text Modern College Typewriting A Basic Course by. Dr Leonard J West includes a comprehensive straight copy. skillbuilding program incorporating his philosophy of teaching. typewriting The program in his text contains materials for. paced and progressive practice Dr West presents research dat. in his book Acquisition of Typewriting Skills supporting his. theory that these two methods are superior to all other methods. in developing straight copy speed and accuracy, At a summer workshop at PSU 1979 Dr West indicated he.
had no information concerning a comparison of the effects of. paced and progressive practice on straight copy speed and. accuracy development After having read many of Dr West s. publications and talking with him during the workshop I became. convinced of the soundness of his recommended skillbuilding. principles and of the superiority of his recently published. I wa eager to implement these principles and textbook in. my classroom and to find out if either of the two skillbuilding. methods paced and progressive practice were superior in. building straight copy speed and accuracy,Need for the Study. Information regarding the possible superiority of various. skillbuilding procedures is essential as a basis for developing. efficient and purposeful classroom activities This information. can and must be obtained through experimental research. According to West Design and Conduct of Educational Surveys. and Experiments 1977 Insofar as what goes on in the. classroom is a central determinant of educational outcomes onl. experimentation can determine what should happen in the. The extent to which either paced and or progressive. practice procedures are used in the classroom may be determined. by utilization of the results of the study,Statement of the Problem. The problem of this study was to determine the effects of. progressive practice skillbuilding procedures and paced practice. skillbuilding procedures upon the straight copy typewriting. achievement of students enrolled in first term collegiate. typewriting The procedures were compared on the bases of the. dependent variables 1 straight copy stroking speed and. 2 straight copy accuracy,The following null hypotheses were tested. 1 There will be no significant differences in the, straight copy stroking speeds achieved by students participatin. in progressive practice skillbuilding procedures and students. participating in paced practice skillbuilding procedures. 2 There will be no significant differences in the, straight copy accuracy achieved by students participating in.
progressive practice skillbuilding procedures and students. participating in paced practice skillbuilding procedures. Purpose of the Study, The results of this study may be helpful to teachers using. the West textbook in determining how much time should be devoted. to progressive and or paced practice procedures in order to. provide the most efficient and successful skillbuilding program. The results of the study may also be helpful to teachers. and other researchers who are interested in the effects of. external pacin9 as a training tool,Delimitations, The study was delimited to the effects of paced and. progressive skillbuilding procedures on the development of. straight copy speed and accuracy A study of the effects of. paced and progressive practice on the development of production. typewriting skills was not included, The accuracy criterion measure was total number of errors. No attempt was made to analyze errors in respect to types and. frequencies occurring under the differing modes of practice. Paced and progressive practice procedures were not. compared with any other methods of skillbuilding,Limitations. The study is limited to the extent that the information. obtained may not apply to high school typing students nor to. college typists at the intermediate and advanced levels. The two treatment groups met at different times of the day. which may have influenced the results of the study. It was assumed that the amount of outside practice would. be equal between the two treatment groups and therefore. records of outside practice were not required, Although student work was checked periodically to ensure.
adherence to the rules of practice it was not possible to check. the work on a daily basis Therefore it can only be assumed. that students were continuously following the rules of. Definition of Terms, The following terms are defined as they apply to the. Straight copy typewriting Word for word copying of. printed or typed matter without erasing and without requiring. format decisions by the typist, Straight copy stroking speed Average gross words per. minute of two five minute timed writings Gross words per. minute is obtained by dividing the total number of typing. strokes by five and dividing this number by the number of. minutes the student typed, Straight copy accuracy The sum of the errors made on two. five minute timed writings,Progressive practice group PR The treatment group. participating in progressive practice Under timed conditions. the students pace themselves in an effort to finish a designated. amount of material in the time allowed,Paced practice group PA The treatment group.
participating in paced practice Under timed conditions the. student s response rate is guided by the external pacing in. quarter minute intervals conducted by the teacher,Syllabic intensity The average number of speech. syllables per dictionary word,Stroke intensity The average number of typewriter. strokes per dictionary word including interword space. Counterbalanced order A random one half of the class. takes two five minute timed writings in A B order and the other. half takes them in B A order This procedure provides empirical. evidence for equivalence of copy difficulty uncontaminated by. possible order of administration or fatigue effects. The development of a usable typewriting skill begins with. building straight copy speed and accuracy Enrollments in. typewriting classes are high Teachers are in need of research. data upon which to base decisions regarding methods and. materials for skillbuilding,This study provides information regarding two. skillbuilding procedures developed and published by Dr Leonard. J West for use in collegiate typewriting classes,CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. The author and designer of the methods and materials for. paced and progressive practice Dr Leonard J West stated. there have been no experimental studies conducted to compare the. effects of these two methods of practice No studies were. found in a search of the literature, The basic difference between paced and progressive practice.
is the external pacing of the response rate feature of the paced. practice Therefore a search of the literature was undertaken. to locate studies in which skillbuilding methods using external. pacing were experimentally compared, In the 1970 s instrumentation in the form of teaching. machines such as the Gregg Pacesetter and the Automated Touch. Typing System was applied to initial keyboard learning. Although these devices contain a pacing component studies. Dupras 1973 Trexler 1973 dealing with their use were found. to be broad comparisons of teacher directed vs machine directed. learning rather than a study of the effects of external pacing. Studies completed in the 1950 s and 1960 s involving the. use of mechanical pacing devices provide the only experimentally. gathered data regarding the use of external pacing These. studies will be presented in chronological order,Tachistoscope Studies. The first two studies involved the use the tachistoscope. T lJ orv1cr lJ an ov r o roJ ctor An flA m t r w 1c. permits one to flash slides of stimulus material on the screen. for varying durations, Winger s study 1951 involved two equated groups of. beginning college typists The experimental group typed using. the tachistoscope for ten minutes per day five days per week. for seven weeks 350 minutes total treatment time The control. group utilizing the same practice schedule typed using regular. textbook and supplementary materials The control group typed. from print and dictation On the 5 minute straight copy post. test the experimental group typed 5 wpm faster and made 1 3. fewer errors per 5 minutes differences were statistically. significant, The study by Palmer 1955 employed two high school classes. formed by random sampling The experimental group typed using. the tachistoscope for ten minutes per day five days per week. for 100 days total treatment time 500 minutes The control. group typed from regular textbook materials On the 5 minute. posttest the experimental group typed 6 3 wpm faster and made. 1 8 fewer errors differences being statistically significant. The early studies of Winger and Palmer reported the. superiority of pacing as a training method However the. experimental and control groups in these studies typed from. development of straight copy speed and accuracy in beginning collegiate typewriting 1980 Dissertations and Theses Paper 3498 A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF PACED PRACTICE AND PROGRESSIVE PRACTICE SKILLBUILDING PROCEDURES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRAIGHT COPY SPEED AND ACCURACY IN BEGINNING COLLEGIATE TYPEWRITING by Bonnie Sue Shannon Professional Paper S u b m i t t e d i n Pa r t i a 1

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