A Case Study Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

A Case Study Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Free PDF

  • Date:31 Jul 2020
  • Views:5
  • Downloads:0
  • Pages:15
  • Size:484.02 KB

Share Pdf : A Case Study Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Download and Preview : A Case Study Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : A Case Study Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy


Transcription:

A Case Study Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Management of ADHD. The cognitive behavioral model highlights the central role of thoughts and attributions in. understanding an individual s emotional and behavioral life The core techniques involve helping. individuals to identify patterns of thinking that interfere with their optimal functioning Levine. Anshel 2011 No single set of methods defines cognitive behavioural treatment However. treatment is governed by two overarching main themes the conviction that cognitive processes. influence emotion motivation and behaviour and the use of cognitive and behaviour change. techniques in a pragmatic hypothesis testing manner Butcher Mineka Hooley 2010. Cognitive behavioural treatment in relation to children with ADHD. Due to some limited effects of psycho stimulant medications on decreasing the cardinal. symptoms of ADHD Hechtman Weiss Perlman 1984 Gittelman Kanner 1986. researchers explored alternative treatment approaches such as cognitive behavioural treatment. Carried out by a therapist cognitive behavioural treatment sessions attempt to teach children. strategies to help them increase their self control and problem solving abilities through. modelling role playing and self instruction Kendall Braswell 1985 Kendall Padever. Zupan 1980 to 1 define the nature of the problem 2 reflect on all the possible solutions. and 3 choose one solution and evaluate its outcome Kendall Braswell 1985. Most current models of ADHD emphasize the deficiencies in the executive functioning skills of. behavioral inhibition and self regulation Barkley 2006 These deficiencies in turn manifest. themselves in overt behaviors such as sustaining attention to academic tasks and inhibiting. excessive motor activity Cognitive behavioral proponents recognise the goodness of fit between. these highlighted deficits in children with ADHD and the self regulatory focus of cognitive. behavioral treatment Hinshaw Melnick 1992 Relatedly the proponents of cognitive. behavioral approach contend that the maintenance of treatment gains can be achieved only. through teaching a generalised set of cognitive mediational self talk skills that children with. ADHD can internalise,CBT and Bandura s Theory, The cognitive behavioral perspective can take a variety of forms and draws on a range of. psychological theories For example Bandura s theory of self efficacy the view that one can. achieve desired goals 1986 1997 and that the beliefs individuals hold about their capabilities. have a strong influence on the ways in which they behave Usher Pajares 2008 is an early. example of a cognitive behavioral perspective He posited that cognitive behavioral treatments. work in large part by improving self efficacy, Beck s cognitive model makes the assumption that problems result from biased processing of. external events or internal stimuli These biases distort the way that person makes sense of the. experiences he or she has in the world leading to cognitive errors Beck 2005 argues that. underlying these biases is a relatively stable set of schemas that contain dysfunctional beliefs. The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348 5396 e ISSN 2349 3429 p 53. A Case Study Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Management of ADHD. When the schemas become activated they bias information processing The central focus in. treatment is therefore to alter distorted and maladaptive cognitions and their underlying schemas. this is achieved through making individuals aware of and exploring the connections between. thoughts and emotional responses and later learning and practicing strategies to better deal with. difficult external events or internal stimuli In the case of ADHD for example the cognitive. behavioral approach helps pupils to understand links between thoughts feelings and behaviors. and that these may result in unhelpful inappropriate or maladaptive consequences The therapy. also explores learning to change these thoughts feelings and behaviors to produce more. desirable outcomes NICE 2009, ADHD is repeatedly singled out as a challenge for teachers parents and psychologists because. of the behavioral characteristics commonly demonstrated by children with this disorder. Langberg Froelich Loren Martin Epstein 2008 Because ADHD is associated with poor. peer relations and negative self image Horn Ialongo Greenberg Packard Smith Winberry. 1990 children with ADHD are at greater risk as adolescents and adults of several social and. emotional problems including substance abuse and depression Gray Riggs Min Mikulich. Gilbertson Bandyopadhyay Winhusen 2011 Tamm Trello Rishel Riggs Nakonezny. Acosta Bailey Winhusen 2013 and the frequency of academic and career problems is. significantly higher in these children compared with the normal population Jensen Mrazek. Knapp Steinberg Pfeffer Schowalter Shapiro 1997 Springer Phillips Phillips Cannady. Kerst Harris 1992, Findings on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions on ADHD behaviors have. been mixed Literature demonstrates the limitations of cognitive behavioral interventions in. directly targeting central ADHD impairments Abikoff 1987 Abikoff 1991 Indeed despite. some early claims of success e g Cameron Robinson 1980 systematic investigations aimed. at comparing the benefits of cognitively based interventions with stimulant medications have. demonstrated the superiority of the latter Abikoff Ganeles Reiter Blum Foley Klein. However other studies show that cognitive behavior techniques are effective in moderating. impulsivity Kendall Braswell 1982 A recent review by Munoz Solomando Kendall. Whittington 2008 also suggests that cognitive behavioral interventions can have beneficial. effects delivered in absence of medication or as adjunct to continued routine medication for. children with ADHD Furthermore current NICE guidelines retain their support for cognitive. behavioral interventions for children with ADHD they consider group based cognitive. behavioral interventions to be both effective with children with ADHD and cost efficient In light. of these discordant views combined with the fact that many reviews are now dated a. re consideration of the area is necessary, The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348 5396 e ISSN 2349 3429 p 54.
A Case Study Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Management of ADHD. The parent s role in supporting the child is crucial yet literature highlights that parents of. children with ADHD often struggle to manage their child s problems suffering from stress and. exhaustion Green Mc Ginnity Meltzer Ford Goodman 2005 Further recent legislation. has highlighted the importance of involving parents in treatment options and the treatment. process making the parent s perspective of particular relevance to current practice As such this. review will focus on the parent s perspective,CASE PRESENTATION. Chief Complaints,1 Hyperactive, 2 Would grab whatever is in hands without prior permission. 3 Does not pay attention to what is told,4 Always disturbing his peer group. 5 Blurts out answers before a question is completed. 6 Pays no attention in school work,7 Delays coping notes at school. HISTORY OF PRESENTING COMPLAINTS, Master L is 9 years old with a history of ADHD He is an overactive child from early infancy.
and his parents initially attributed his exuberant behavior to the natural tendencies of his sex. The parents tried their best to keep the behavior under control by verbally controlling his. discipline and occasionally spanking him, When he was 3 years of age his parents came increasingly aware of his hyperactivity. impulsivity There were regular complaints from school regarding his inattention At the age of. 5 years he was diagnosed as ADHD by a psychologist Their parents accepted the counseling. done to help manage their son s condition but the parents declined use of medication Later. when the child was changed to a new school teachers complained about his hyperactivity. inattentiveness and distracting peer group he would never wait for his turn and always. impulsive he would never wait for the question to be completed and would blurt out answers. which became an hindrance in his understanding and learn more The parents were called and. again adviced to seek the help of a psychologist, A psychological evaluation was done again and recommended for medication This time parents. accepted and started giving medication The parents were placed on the defensive all the time. and began to feel threatened stating that the focus was no longer on the child s condition but on. the parental abilities As a result to attend to children and coordinate their care unable to. navigate the different agencies that had become involved with their family and believing a more. disciplinary and controlled environment might help the parents kept away Mast L from his. sibling Master L was staying at his grandparents home and his other sibling was staying with his. The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348 5396 e ISSN 2349 3429 p 55. A Case Study Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Management of ADHD. parents they would both exchange visit to their home weekly once Neither environment had an. effect on his behavior He continued to be inattentive hyperactive and impulsive. DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGIES, Table 1 lists the DSM IV criteria for the 3 subtype of ADHD These are 1 Predominantly. inattentive has at least 6 9 inattentive behaviors 2 Predominantly hyperactive and impulsive. has 6 9 hyperactive and impulsive behaviors and 3 Combined has at least 6 9 for both. inattention and hyperactive impulsive behaviors, Table 1 DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Six or more symptoms from the specified category or categories listed below must have. persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental. 314 01 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined type categories A1 and A2. 314 00 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominately inattentive type category A1. 314 01 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominately hyperactive impulsive type. category A2, 314 9 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder not otherwise specified prominent symptoms of.
inattention or Hyperactivity impulsivity that do not meet criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity. A1 Inattention, 1 Often Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork. work or other activities, 2 Has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities. 3 Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly, 4 Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork chores or duties in. the workplace not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions. 5 Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities, 6 Avoids dislikes or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort. such as schoolwork or homework, 7 Loses things necessary for tasks or activities Eg toys school assignments pencils books.
8 Is easily distracted by extraneous stimuli,9 Is forgetful in daily activities. A2 Hyperactivity Impulsivity,Hyperactivity, 1 Often Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat. 2 Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected. 3 Runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which is inappropriate. The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348 5396 e ISSN 2349 3429 p 56. A Case Study Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Management of ADHD. in adolescents or adults may be linked to subjective feelings of restlessness. 4 Has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly. 5 Is on the go or often acts as if driven by a motor. 6 Talks excessively,Impulsivity, 1 Often Blurts out answers before questions have been completed. 2 Has difficulty awaiting turn, 3 Interrupts or intrudes on others Eg butts into conversations or games. Additional required criteria, B Some hyperactive impulsive or inattentive symptoms that cause impairment were present.
before 7 years of age, C Impairment in 2 or more settings eg at school work or home. D Clinically significant impairment in social academic or occupational functioning. E Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder. schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder and are not better accounted for by another mental. disorder Eg mood disorder anxiety disorder dissociative disorder or a personality disorder. ADHD Rating Scale,Child s Name Age Date,Completed By Parent Teacher Other. For each line below please put an x in the box that best describes the child s behaviour over. the last 6 months,BEHAVIOR Always Very Somewhat Rarely or. INATTENTION often Never,Fails to give close attention to details or. makes careless mistakes in,schoolwork homework,Has difficulty keeping attention on tasks or.
play activities,Does not seem to listen when spoken to. Does not follow through on instructions and,fails to finish schoolwork or chores. Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities,Avoids or strongly dislikes tasks that require. sustained mental effort e g homework,Loses things necessary for tasks or activities. e g pencils books toys etc, The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348 5396 e ISSN 2349 3429 p 57.
A Case Study Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Management of ADHD. The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348 5396 e ISSN 2349 3429 p Volume 3 Issue 3 No 8 DIP 18 01 140 20160303 ISBN 978 1 365 12176 0

Related Books