4 6 1 Waves in air fluids and solids TPSScience

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GCSE Physics 8463 For exams 2018 onwards Version 1 0. Content Key opportunities for,skills development,All waves obey the wave equation. wave speed frequency wavelength MS 1c 3b 3c,Students should be able to. v f recall and apply this equation,wave speed v in metres per second m s. frequency f in hertz Hz wavelength in,metres m Students should be able to. identify amplitude and wavelength from given diagrams. describe a method to measure the speed of sound waves in air AT1. WS 2 3 2 4 2 6 2 7 3 1 3 5, describe a method to measure the speed of ripples on a water AT1 AT4.
surface WS 2 3 2 4 2 6 2 7 3 1 3 5, Physics only Students should be able to show how changes in Physics only MS 1c 3b 3c. velocity frequency and wavelength in transmission of sound waves. from one medium to another are inter related, Required practical activity 8 make observations to identify the suitability of apparatus to measure the. frequency wavelength and speed of waves in a ripple tank and waves in a solid and take appropriate. measurements,AT skills covered by this practical activity AT 4. This practical activity also provides opportunities to develop WS and MS Details of all skills are given in. Key opportunities for skills development,4 6 1 3 Reflection of waves physics only. Content Key opportunities for,skills development, Waves can be reflected at the boundary between two different.
Waves can be absorbed or transmitted at the boundary between two. different materials, Students should be able to construct ray diagrams to illustrate the MS 5a 5c. reflection of a wave at a surface WS 1 2, Students should be able to describe the effects of reflection. transmission and absorption of waves at material interfaces. Required practical activity 9 physics only investigate the reflection of light by different types of. surface and the refraction of light by different substances. AT skills covered by this practical activity AT 4 and 8. This practical activity also provides opportunities to develop WS and MS Details of all skills are given in. Key opportunities for skills development, Visit aqa org uk 8463 for the most up to date specification resources support and administration59. 4 6 1 4 Sound waves physics only HT only,Content Key opportunities for skills. development, Sound waves can travel through solids causing vibrations in the.
Within the ear sound waves cause the ear drum and other parts to. vibrate which causes the sensation of sound The conversion of. sound waves to vibrations of solids works over a limited frequency. range This restricts the limits of human hearing,Students should be able to. describe with examples processes which convert wave. disturbances between sound waves and vibrations in solids. Examples may include the effect of sound waves on the ear drum. explain why such processes only work over a limited frequency. range and the relevance of this to human hearing, Students should know that the range of normal human hearing is. from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, 4 6 1 5 Waves for detection and exploration physics only HT only. Content Key opportunities for skills,development, Students should be able to explain in qualitative terms how the. differences in velocity absorption and reflection between different. types of wave in solids and liquids can be used both for detection. and exploration of structures which are hidden from direct. observation, Ultrasound waves have a frequency higher than the upper limit of WS 1 4.
hearing for humans Ultrasound waves are partially reflected when. they meet a boundary between two different media The time taken. for the reflections to reach a detector can be used to determine how. far away such a boundary is This allows ultrasound waves to be. used for both medical and industrial imaging, Seismic waves are produced by earthquakes P waves are. longitudinal seismic waves P waves travel at different speeds. through solids and liquids S waves are transverse seismic waves. S waves cannot travel through a liquid P waves and S waves. provide evidence for the structure and size of the Earth s core. Echo sounding using high frequency sound waves is used to detect. objects in deep water and measure water depth, Students should be aware that the study of seismic waves provided WS 1 1. new evidence that led to discoveries about parts of the Earth which. are not directly observable, 60 Visit aqa org uk 8463 for the most up to date specification resources support and administration. GCSE Physics 8463 For exams 2018 onwards Version 1 0. 4 6 2 Electromagnetic waves,4 6 2 1 Types of electromagnetic waves. Content Key opportunities for skills,development, Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that transfer energy.
from the source of the waves to an absorber, Electromagnetic waves form a continuous spectrum and all types of. electromagnetic wave travel at the same velocity through a vacuum. space or air, The waves that form the electromagnetic spectrum are grouped in. terms of their wavelength and their frequency Going from long to. short wavelength or from low to high frequency the groups are. radio microwave infrared visible light red to violet ultraviolet X. rays and gamma rays, Our eyes only detect visible light and so detect a limited range of. electromagnetic waves, Students should be able to give examples that illustrate the transfer. of energy by electromagnetic waves,4 6 2 2 Properties of electromagnetic waves 1.
Content Key opportunities for skills,development, HT only Different substances may absorb transmit refract or reflect. electromagnetic waves in ways that vary with wavelength. HT only Some effects for example refraction are due to the. difference in velocity of the waves in different substances. Students should be able to construct ray diagrams to illustrate the. refraction of a wave at the boundary between two different media. HT only Students should be able to use wave front diagrams to WS 1 2. explain refraction in terms of the change of speed that happens. when a wave travels from one medium to a different medium. Required practical activity 10 investigate how the amount of infrared radiation absorbed or radiated. by a surface depends on the nature of that surface. AT skills covered by this practical activity AT 1 and 4. This practical activity also provides opportunities to develop WS and MS Details of all skills are given in. Key opportunities for skills development, Visit aqa org uk 8463 for the most up to date specification resources support and administration61. 4 6 2 3 Properties of electromagnetic waves 2,Content Key opportunities for skills. development, HT only Radio waves can be produced by oscillations in electrical. HT only When radio waves are absorbed they may create an. alternating current with the same frequency as the radio wave itself. so radio waves can themselves induce oscillations in an electrical. Changes in atoms and the nuclei of atoms can result in. electromagnetic waves being generated or absorbed over a wide. frequency range Gamma rays originate from changes in the nucleus. of an atom, Ultraviolet waves X rays and gamma rays can have hazardous WS 1 5.
effects on human body tissue The effects depend on the type of. radiation and the size of the dose Radiation dose in sieverts is a. measure of the risk of harm resulting from an exposure of the body. to the radiation,1000 millisieverts mSv 1 sievert Sv WS 1 5. Students will not be required to recall the unit of radiation dose. Students should be able to draw conclusions from given data about. the risks and consequences of exposure to radiation. Ultraviolet waves can cause skin to age prematurely and increase the. risk of skin cancer X rays and gamma rays are ionising radiation that. can cause the mutation of genes and cancer, 4 6 2 4 Uses and applications of electromagnetic waves. Content Key opportunities for skills,development, Electromagnetic waves have many practical applications For. radio waves television and radio,microwaves satellite communications cooking food. infrared electrical heaters cooking food infrared cameras. visible light fibre optic communications,ultraviolet energy efficient lamps sun tanning.
X rays and gamma rays medical imaging and treatments. HT only Students should be able to give brief explanations why HT only WS 1 4. each type of electromagnetic wave is suitable for the practical. application, 62 Visit aqa org uk 8463 for the most up to date specification resources support and administration. GCSE Physics 8463 For exams 2018 onwards Version 1 0. 4 6 2 5 Lenses physics only,Content Key opportunities for. skills development, A lens forms an image by refracting light In a convex lens parallel. rays of light are brought to a focus at the principal focus The distance. from the lens to the principal focus is called the focal length Ray. diagrams are used to show the formation of images by convex and. concave lenses, The image produced by a convex lens can be either real or virtual. The image produced by a concave lens is always virtual. Students should be able to construct ray diagrams to illustrate the MS 5a 5c. similarities and differences between convex and concave lenses WS 1 2. The magnification produced by a lens can be calculated using the. image height,magnification MS 3b c,object height,Students should be able to.
Magnification is a ratio and so has no units apply this equation which is. given on the Physics, Image height and object height should both be measured in either. equation sheet, In ray diagrams a convex lens will be represented by. Investigate the magnification,produced by a range of. convex lenses,A concave lens will be represented by. Visit aqa org uk 8463 for the most up to date specification resources support and administration63. 4 6 2 6 Visible light physics only,Content Key opportunities for skills.
development, Each colour within the visible light spectrum has its own narrow band. of wavelength and frequency, Reflection from a smooth surface in a single direction is called. specular reflection Reflection from a rough surface causes. scattering this is called diffuse reflection, Colour filters work by absorbing certain wavelengths and colour. and transmitting other wavelengths and colour, The colour of an opaque object is determined by which wavelengths. of light are more strongly reflected Wavelengths that are not. reflected are absorbed If all wavelengths are reflected equally the. object appears white If all wavelengths are absorbed the objects. appears black, Objects that transmit light are either transparent or translucent.
Students should be able to explain, how the colour of an object is related to the differential absorption. transmission and reflection of different wavelengths of light by the. the effect of viewing objects through filters or the effect on light of. passing through filters,why an opaque object has a particular colour. 4 6 3 Black body radiation physics only, 4 6 3 1 Emission and absorption of infrared radiation. Content Key opportunities for skills,development, All bodies objects no matter what temperature emit and absorb. infrared radiation The hotter the body the more infrared radiation it. radiates in a given time, A perfect black body is an object that absorbs all of the radiation.
incident on it A black body does not reflect or transmit any radiation. Since a good absorber is also a good emitter a perfect black body. would be the best possible emitter, 64 Visit aqa org uk 8463 for the most up to date specification resources support and administration. GCSE Physics 8463 For exams 2018 onwards Version 1 0. 4 6 3 2 Perfect black bodies and radiation,Content Key opportunities for skills. development,Students should be able to explain,that all bodies objects emit radiation. that the intensity and wavelength distribution of any emission. depends on the temperature of the body, HT only A body at constant temperature is absorbing radiation at. the same rate as it is emitting radiation The temperature of a body. increases when the body absorbs radiation faster than it emits. HT only The temperature of the Earth depends on many factors. including the rates of absorption and emission of radiation reflection. of radiation into space, HT only Students should be able to explain how the temperature.
of a body is related to the balance between incoming radiation. absorbed and radiation emitted using everyday examples to. illustrate this balance and the example of the factors which. determine the temperature of the Earth, HT only Students should be able to use information or draw WS 1 2. interpret diagrams to show how radiation affects the temperature of. the Earth s surface and atmosphere, Visit aqa org uk 8463 for the most up to date specification resources support and administration65. electromagnetic waves 4 6 1 Waves in air fluids and solids 4 6 1 1 Transverse and longitudinal waves Content Key opportunities for skills development Waves may be either transverse or longitudinal The ripples on a water surface are an example of a transverse wave Longitudinal waves show areas of compression and rarefaction

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