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35809 FM i xviii qxd 7 6 07 4 07 PM Page ii, Jones and Bartlett Publishers NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. World Headquarters, Jones and Bartlett Publishers Jones and Bartlett Publishers Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 40 Tall Pine Drive International Canada, Sudbury MA 01776 Barb House Barb Mews 6339 Ormindale Way. 978 443 5000 London W6 7PA Mississauga Ontario L5V 1J2. info jbpub com United Kingdom Canada, www jbpub com. Jones and Bartlett s books and products are available through most bookstores and online booksellers To. contact Jones and Bartlett Publishers directly call 800 832 0034 fax 978 443 8000 or visit our website. www jbpub com , Substantial discounts on bulk quantities of Jones and Bartlett s publications are available to corpora .
tions professional associations and other qualified organizations For details and specific discount. information contact the special sales department at Jones and Bartlett via the above contact informa . tion or send an email to specialsales jbpub com , Copyright 2008 by Jones and Bartlett Publishers Inc . All rights reserved No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in. any form electronic or mechanical including photocopying recording or by any information storage. and retrieval system without written permission from the copyright owner . This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the Subject. Matter covered It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal . accounting or other professional service If legal advice or other expert assistance is required the service. of a competent professional person should be sought . Production Credits, Publisher Michael Brown Composition Graphic World Inc . Associate Editor Katey Birtcher Cover Design Kristin E Ohlin. Production Director Amy Rose Cover Image Sebastian Kaulitzki . Production Editor Tracey Chapman ShutterStock Inc Li Wa ShutterStock Inc . Associate Production Editor Rachel Rossi Printing and Binding Malloy Inc. Marketing Manager Sophie Fleck Cover Printing Malloy Inc. Manufacturing Buyer Therese Connell, Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Gerstman B Burt , Basic biostatistics statistics for public health practice B Burt Gerstman . p cm , Includes index , ISBN 13 978 0 7637 3580 7 alk paper .
ISBN 10 0 7637 3580 9 alk paper , 1 Medical statistics 2 Biometry 3 Public health Statistical methods I Title . DNLM 1 Biometry methods 2 Public Health Practice WA 950 G383b 2008 . RA409 G47 2008, 362 1072 7 dc22, 2007003334, 6048. Printed in the United States of America, 11 10 09 08 07 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. 35809 FM i xviii qxd 7 6 07 4 07 PM Page iii, Jones and Bartlett Publishers NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. To my mother Bernadine and in memory of my father Joseph . 35809 FM i xviii qxd 7 6 07 4 07 PM Page iv, Jones and Bartlett Publishers NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
35809 FM i xviii qxd 7 6 07 4 07 PM Page v, Jones and Bartlett Publishers NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. Table of Contents, Preface xi, Acknowledgments xv. About the Author xvii, Part I General Concept and Techniques. Chapter 1 Measurement 1, 1 1 What Is Biostatistics 1. 1 2 Organization of Data 2, 1 3 Types of Measurements 5.
1 4 Data Quality 7, Chapter 2 Types of Studies 15. 2 1 Surveys 15, 2 2 Comparative Studies 21, Chapter 3 Frequency Distributions 35. 3 1 Stemplots 35, 3 2 Frequency Tables 51, 3 3 Additional Frequency Charts 55. Chapter 4 Summary Statistics 63, 4 1 Central Location Mean 63. 4 2 Central Location Median 67, 4 3 Central Location Mode 70.
4 4 Comparison of the Mean Median and Mode 70, 4 5 Spread Quartiles 71. v, 35809 FM i xviii qxd 7 6 07 4 07 PM Page vi, Jones and Bartlett Publishers NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. vi TA B L E OF CONTENTS, 4 6 Boxplots 75, 4 7 Spread Variance and Standard Deviation 78. 4 8 Selecting Summary Statistics 84, Chapter 5 Probability Concepts 89. 5 1 What Is Probability 89, 5 2 Types of Random Variables 92.
5 3 Discrete Random Variables 93, 5 4 Continuous Random Variables 100. 5 5 More Rules and Properties of Probability 105, Chapter 6 Binomial Probability Distributions 115. 6 1 Binomial Random Variables 115, 6 2 Calculating Binomial Probabilities 116. 6 3 Cumulative Probabilities 119, 6 4 Probability Calculators 120. 6 5 Expected Value and Variance of a Binomial 123. Random Variable, 6 6 Using the Binomial Distribution to Help 125.
Make Judgments, Chapter 7 Normal Probability Distributions 129. 7 1 Normal Distributions 129, 7 2 Determining Normal Probabilities 139. 7 3 Finding Values That Correspond to Normal 145, Probabilities. 7 4 Assessing Departures from Normality 147, Chapter 8 Introduction to Statistical Inference 155. 8 1 Concepts 155, 8 2 Sampling Behavior of a Mean 158.
8 3 Sampling Behavior of a Count and Proportion 167. Chapter 9 Basics of Hypothesis Testing 175, 9 1 The Null and Alternative Hypotheses 175. 9 2 Test Statistic 178, 9 3 P Value 181, 9 4 Significance Level 182. 9 5 One Sample z Test 184, 9 6 Power and Sample Size 188. 35809 FM i xviii qxd 7 6 07 4 07 PM Page vii, Jones and Bartlett Publishers NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. TA B L E OF CONTENTS vii, Chapter 10 Basics of Confidence Intervals 197.
10 1 Introduction to Estimation 197, 10 2 Confidence Interval for When Known 199. 10 3 Sample Size Requirements 203, 10 4 Relationship Between Hypothesis Testing 205. and Confidence Intervals, Part II Quantitative Response Variable. Chapter 11 Inference About a Mean 209, 11 1 Estimated Standard Error of the Mean 209. 11 2 Student s t Distributions 210, 11 3 One Sample t Test 214.
11 4 Confidence Interval for 217, 11 5 Paired Samples 218. 11 6 Conditions for Inference 224, 11 7 Sample Size and Power 226. Chapter 12 Comparing Independent Means 235, 12 1 Paired and Independent Samples 235. 12 2 Exploratory and Descriptive Statistics 239, 12 3 Inference About the Mean Difference 243. 12 4 Equal Variance t Procedure Optional 247, 12 5 Conditions for Inference 248.
12 6 Sample Size and Power 250, Chapter 13 Comparing Several Means One Way ANOVA 259. 13 1 Descriptive Statistics 260, 13 2 The Problem of Multiple Comparisons 265. 13 3 Analysis of Variance ANOVA 266, 13 4 Post Hoc Comparisons 276. 13 5 The Equal Variance Assumption 282, 13 6 Introduction to Non Parametric Tests 287. Chapter 14 Correlation and Regression 295, 14 1 Data 295.
14 2 Scatterplots 296, 14 3 Correlation 299, 14 4 Regression 311. 35809 FM i xviii qxd 7 6 07 4 07 PM Page viii, Jones and Bartlett Publishers NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. viii TA B L E OF CONTENTS, Chapter 15 Multiple Linear Regression 333. 15 1 The General Idea 333, 15 2 The Multiple Linear Regression Model 334. 15 3 Categorical Explanatory Variables in 337, Regression Models.
15 4 Regression Coefficients 340, 15 5 ANOVA for Multiple Linear Regression 342. 15 6 Examining Multiple Regression Conditions 346. Part III Categorical Response Variable, Chapter 16 Inference About a Proportion 349. 16 1 Proportions 349, 16 2 The Sampling Distribution of a Proportion 352. 16 3 Hypothesis Test Normal Approximation 354, 16 4 Hypothesis Test Exact Binomial Method 357. 16 5 Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 363. 16 6 Sample Size and Power 366, Chapter 17 Comparing Two Proportions 373.
17 1 Data 373, 17 2 Proportion Difference Risk Difference 375. 17 3 Hypothesis Test 380, 17 4 Proportion Ratio Relative Risk 389. 17 5 Systematic Sources of Error 393, 17 6 Power and Sample Size 396. Chapter 18 Cross Tabulated Counts 407, 18 1 Types of Samples 407. 18 2 Describing Naturalistic and Cohort Samples 409. 18 3 Chi Square Test of Association 421, 18 4 Test for Trend 431.
18 5 Case Control Samples 436, 18 6 Matched Pairs 446. Chapter 19 Stratified 2 by 2 Tables 465, 19 1 Preventing Confounding 465. 19 2 Simpson s Paradox 466, 19 3 Mantel Haenszel Methods 468. 19 4 Interaction 474, 35809 FM i xviii qxd 7 6 07 4 07 PM Page ix. Jones and Bartlett Publishers NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. TA B L E OF CONTENTS ix, Appendix A Table of 2000 Random Digits 483.
Appendix B z Table Cummulative Probablities, for a Standard Normal Random Variable 485. Appendix C t Table 487, Appendix D F Table 489, Appendix E X2 Table 493. Appendix F Two Tails of z 495, Answers to Odd Numbered Exercises 497. Index 547, 35809 FM i xviii qxd 7 6 07 4 07 PM Page x. Jones and Bartlett Publishers NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. 35809 FM i xviii qxd 7 6 07 4 07 PM Page xi, Jones and Bartlett Publishers NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
Preface, Basic Biostatistics is an introductory text that presents statistical ideas and tech . niques for students and workers in public health and biomedical practice and. research The book is designed to be accessible to students with modest mathe . matical backgrounds no more than high school algebra is needed to understand. this book With this said I hope to get past the notion that biostatistics is just an. extension of math Biostatistics is much more than that it is a combination of. mathematics and careful reasoning Do not let the former interfere with the latter . Biostatistical analysis is more than just number crunching it considers how. research questions are generated studies are designed data are collected and. results are interpreted , Analysis of data with a more or less statistical flavor should play many roles a. Basic Biostatistics pays particular attention to exploratory and descriptive. analyses Whereas many introductory biostatistics texts give this topic intermit . tent attention this text gives it ongoing consideration . Both exploratory and confirmatory data analysis deserves our attention b. Biostatistics entails formulating research questions and designing processes for. exploring and testing theories I hope students who come to the study of biosta . tistics asking What s the right answer leave asking questions like Was that the. right question and Has the question been answered adequately . Far better an approximate answer to the right question which is often vague than. an exact answer to the wrong question which can always be made precise c. a Tukey J W 1980 We need both exploratory and confirmatory American Statistician 34 1 23 25 . b Tukey J W 1969 Analyzing data Sanctification or detective work American Psychologist 24 83 . c Tukey J W 1962 The future of data analysis Annals of Mathematical Statistics 33 1 13 14 . xi, 35809 FM i xviii qxd 7 6 07 4 07 PM Page xii, Jones and Bartlett Publishers NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. xii PREFACE, Several additional points bear emphasis . Point 1 Practice practice practice In studying biostatistics you are devel . oping a new set of reasoning skills What is true of developing other skills. is true of developing biostatistical skills the only way to get better is to. practice with the proper awareness and attention To this end illustrative. examples and exercises are incorporated throughout the book I ve tried. to make illustrations and exercises relevant Many are contemporary and. many have historical importance Carefully following the reasoning of. illustrations and exercises is an important opportunity to learn Answers. to odd numbered exercises are provided toward the back of the book . Qualified instructors may request answers to even numbered exercises. from the publisher , Point 2 Structure of the book The structure of this book may differ from.
that of other texts Chapters are intentionally brief They allow for flexi . bility in the order of coverage The book is organized into three main. parts Part I Chapters 1 10 addresses basic concepts and techniques . Students should complete these chapters or a comparable introductory. course before moving on to Parts II and III , Part II Chapters 11 15 covers analytic techniques for quantitative. responses Part III Chapters 16 19 covers techniques for categorical. responses Chapters in these sections can be covered in many different. orders at the discretion of the instructor One instructor may choose to. cover these chapters in sequence while another may cover Chapter 11. and Chapter 16 simultaneously as an example because these chapters. both address one sample problems Chapter 11 covers one sample prob . lems for quantitative responses Chapter 16 covers one sample problems. for binary responses As another example one could cover the chapters. on categorical responses Chapters 16 19 before covering the chapters on. quantitative responses Chapter 11 15 , Point 3 Hand calculations and computational support While I believe. there is still benefit in learning how to calculate statistics by hand stu . dents are encouraged to use statistical software to supplement and check. calculations Use of the proper software tools can free us from some of the. tedium of numerical manipulations leaving more time to step back and. think about practical implications of results , The only way humans can do BETTER t. Basic Biostatisticsis an introductory text that presents statistical ideas and tech niques for students and workers in public health and biomedical practice and research The book is designed to be accessible to students with modest mathe matical backgrounds no more than high school algebra is needed to understand this book With this said I

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