33 The Building of Global Empires Mr Davis Virtual

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ben06937 Ch33 908 940 qxd 8 22 07 8 33 AM Page 909. Foundations of Empire The Emergence of New Imperial Powers. Motives of Imperialism U S Imperialism in Latin America and the Pacific. Tools of Empire Imperial Japan,European Imperialism Legacies of Imperialism. The British Empire in India Empire and Economy, Imperialism in Central Asia and Southeast Asia Labor Migrations. The Scramble for Africa Empire and Society, European Imperialism in the Pacific Nationalism and Anticolonial Movements. Few Europeans had traveled to south Africa by the mid nineteenth century but the discov. ery of diamonds and rich gold deposits brought both European settlers and dramatic change. to the region European prospectors flocked to south Africa to seek their fortune. Among the arrivals was Cecil John Rhodes an eighteen year old student at Oxford Univer. sity who in 1871 went to south Africa in search of a climate that would relieve his tuberculo. sis Rhodes was persistent systematic and ambitious He carefully supervised African laborers. who worked his claims in the diamond fields and he bought the rights to others claims when. they looked promising By 1889 at age thirty five he had almost completely monopolized di. amond mining in south Africa and he controlled 90 percent of the world s diamond produc. tion With ample financial backing Rhodes built up a healthy stake in the gold mining. business although he did not seek to monopolize gold the way he did diamonds He also en. tered politics serving as prime minister 1890 1896 of the British Cape Colony. Yet Rhodes s ambitions went far beyond business and local politics In his vision the Cape. Colony would serve as a base of operations for the extension of British control to all of Africa. from Cape to Cairo Rhodes led the movement to enlarge the colony by absorbing territories to. the north settled by Dutch farmers Under Rhodes s guidance the colony annexed Bechuana. land modern Botswana in 1885 and in 1895 it added Rhodesia modern Zambia and Zim. babwe to its holdings But Rhodes s plan did not stop with Africa he urged the expansion of. the British empire until it embraced all the world and he even hoped to bring the United States. of America back into the British fold Rhodes considered British society the most noble moral. and honorable in the world and he regarded imperial expansion as a duty to humankind We. are the finest race in the world he said in 1877 and the more of the world we inhabit the. better it is for the human race In his sense of superiority to other peoples as well as his rest. less energy his compulsion to expand and his craving to extract mineral wealth from distant. parts of the world Rhodes represented well the views of European imperialists who carved the. world into colonies during the nineteenth century, Throughout history strong societies have often sought to dominate their weaker neighbors. by subjecting them to imperial rule They have built empires for various reasons to gain con. trol over natural resources to subdue potential enemies to seize wealth to acquire territory for. expansion and to win glory From the days of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt to the present. imperialism has been a prominent theme of world history. During the second half of the nineteenth century as the Ottoman and Qing empires weak. ened a handful of western European states wrote a new chapter in the history of imperialism. OPPOSITE The battle of Omdurman on the Nile River 2 September 1898. ben06937 Ch33 908 940 qxd 8 22 07 8 33 AM Page 910. 910 PART VI An Age of Revolution Industry and Empire 1750 to 1914. Strong nationalist sentiments enabled them to mobilize their populations for purposes of over. seas expansion Industrialization equipped them with the most effective tools and the most. lethal weapons available anywhere in the world Three centuries of experience with maritime. trade in Asia Africa the Americas and Oceania provided them with unparalleled knowledge. of the world and its peoples With those advantages western European peoples conquered. foreign armies overpowered local rulers and imposed their hegemony throughout the world. Toward the end of the century the United States and Japan joined European states as new im. perial powers, The establishment of global empires had far reaching effects In many ways imperialism.
tightened links between the world s societies Imperial powers encouraged trade between. dominant states and their overseas colonies for example and they organized mass migra. tions of laborers to work in agricultural and industrial ventures Yet imperialism also fostered. divisions between the world s peoples Powerful tools deadly weapons and global hege. mony tempted European peoples to consider themselves superior to their subjects through. out the world modern racism is one of the legacies of imperialism Another effect of. imperialism was the development of nationalism in subject lands Just as the incursion of. Napoleonic armies stimulated the development of nationalism in Europe so the imposition. of foreign rule provoked nationalist responses in colonized lands Although formal empires. almost entirely dissolved in the twentieth century the influence of global imperialism contin. ues to shape the contemporary world,Foundations of Empire. Even under the best of circumstances campaigns to conquer foreign lands have always. been dangerous and expensive ventures They have arisen from a sense that foreign. conquest is essential and they have entailed the mobilization of political military and. economic resources In nineteenth century Europe proponents of empire advanced a. variety of political economic and cultural arguments to justify the conquest and con. trol of foreign lands The imperialist ventures that they promoted enjoyed dramatic. success partly because of the increasingly sophisticated technologies developed by Eu. ropean industry,Motives of Imperialism, Modern Imperialism The building of empires is an old story in world history By the nineteenth century. however European observers recognized that empires of their day were different. from those of earlier times Accordingly about midcentury they began to speak of. imperialism and by the 1880s the recently coined term had made its way into popu. lar speech and writing throughout western Europe In contemporary usage imperi. alism refers to the domination of European powers and later the United States and. Japan as well over subject lands in the larger world Sometimes that domination. came in the old fashioned way by force of arms but often it arose from trade in. vestment and business activities that enabled imperial powers to profit from subject. societies and influence their affairs without going to the trouble of exercising direct. political control, Modern Colonialism Like the building of empires the establishment of colonies in foreign lands is a. practice dating from ancient times In modern parlance however colonialism refers. not just to the sending of colonists to settle new lands but also to the political social. economic and cultural structures that enabled imperial powers to dominate subject. lands In some lands such as North America Chile Argentina Australia New Zealand. ben06937 Ch33 908 940 qxd 8 22 07 8 33 AM Page 911. CHAPTER 33 The Building of Global Empires 911, and south Africa European powers established settler colonies populated largely by. migrants from the home societies Yet contemporary scholars also speak of European. colonies in India southeast Asia and sub Saharan Africa even though European mi. grants did not settle there in large numbers European agents officials and business. people effectively turned those lands into colonies and profoundly influenced their. historical development by controlling their domestic and foreign policies integrating. local economies into the network of global capitalism introducing European business. techniques transforming educational systems according to European standards and. promoting European cultural preferences, During the second half of the nineteenth century many Europeans came to believe.
that imperial expansion and colonial domination were crucial for the survival of their. states and societies and sometimes for the health of their personal fortunes as well. European merchants and entrepreneurs sometimes became fabulously wealthy from. business ventures in Asia or Africa and they argued for their home states to pursue im. perialist policies partly to secure and enhance their own enterprises After making his. fortune mining diamonds and gold for example Cecil Rhodes 1853 1902 worked. tirelessly on behalf of British imperial expansion. It is not difficult to understand why entrepreneurs such as Rhodes would pro Economic Motives. mote overseas expansion but their interests alone could not have driven the vast im of Imperialism. perialist ventures of the late nineteenth century In fact a wide range of motives. encouraged European peoples to launch campaigns of conquest and control Some. advocates argued that imperialism was in the economic interests of European soci. eties as well as individuals They pointed out that overseas colonies could serve as re. liable sources of raw materials not available in Europe that came into demand because. of industrialization rubber tin and copper were vital products for example and by. the late nineteenth century petroleum had also become a crucial resource for indus. trialized lands Rubber trees were indigenous to the Amazon River basin but imperi. alists established colonial rubber plantations in the Congo River basin and Malaya. Abundant supplies of tin were available from colonies in southeast Asia and copper. in central Africa The United States and Russia supplied most of the world s petro. leum in the nineteenth century but the oil fields of southwest Asia attracted the at. tention of European industrialists and imperialists alike. Proponents of imperialism also held that colonies would consume manufactured. products and provide a haven for migrants in an age of rapidly increasing European. population In fact manufactured goods did not flow to most colonies in large quan. tities and European migrants went overwhelmingly to independent states in the. Americas rather than to overseas colonies Nevertheless arguments arising from na. tional economic interest generated considerable support for imperialism. As European states extended their influence overseas a geopolitical argument for Political Motives. imperialism gained prominence Even if colonies were not economically beneficial im of Imperialism. perialists held it was crucial for political and military reasons to maintain them Some. overseas colonies occupied strategic sites on the world s sea lanes and others offered. harbors or supply stations for commercial and naval ships Advocates of imperialism. sought to gain those advantages for their own states and equally important to deny. them to rivals, Imperialism had its uses also for domestic politics In an age when socialists and. communists directly confronted industrialists European politicians and national lead. ers sought to defuse social tension and inspire patriotism by focusing public attention. on foreign imperialist ventures Cecil Rhodes himself once observed that imperialism. was an attractive alternative to civil war and the German chancellor Otto von Bis. marck worked to persuade both industrialists and workers that overseas expansion. ben06937 Ch33 908 940 qxd 8 22 07 8 33 AM Page 912. 912 PART VI An Age of Revolution Industry and Empire 1750 to 1914. Cecil Rhodes resting in the goldfields of south Africa about 1897. would benefit them all By the end of the nineteenth century European leaders fre. quently organized colonial exhibitions where subject peoples displayed their dress. music and customs for tourists and the general public in imperial lands all in an ef. fort to win popular support for imperialist policies. Cultural Justifications Even spiritual motives fostered imperialism Like the Jesuits in the early modern. of Imperialism era missionaries flocked to African and Asian lands in search of converts to Christian. ity Missionaries often opposed imperialist ventures and defended the interests of their. converts against European entrepreneurs and colonial officials Nevertheless their spir. itual campaigns provided a powerful religious justification for imperialism Further. more missionaries often facilitated communications between imperialists and subject. peoples and they sometimes provided European officials with information they needed. to maintain control of overseas colonies Missionary settlements also served as conve. nient meeting places for Europeans overseas and as distribution centers for European. manufactured goods, While missionaries sought to introduce Christianity to subject peoples other Eu. ropeans worked to bring them civilization in the form of political order and social. stability French imperialists routinely invoked the mission civilisatrice civilizing mis. sion as justification for their expansion into Africa and Asia and the English writer. and poet Rudyard Kipling 1864 1936 defined the white man s burden as the. duty of European and Euro American peoples to bring order and enlightenment to. distant lands,Tools of Empire, Even the strongest motives would not have enabled imperialists to impose their rule. throughout the world without the powerful technological advan. 912 PART VI An Age of Revolution Industry and Empire 1750 to 1914 would bene t them all By the end of the nineteenth century European leaders fre quently organized colonial exhibitions where subject peoples displayed their dress music and customs for tourists and the general public in imperial lands all in an ef fort to win popular support for imperialist policies Even spiritual

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