3 2 Energy Flow

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0062 0080 bi c07 te 3 7 06 2 12 PM Page 68,Energy From the Sun The best known. 3 2 continued Energy,autotrophs are those that harness solar energy. through a process known as photosynthesis, Make Connections During photosynthesis these autotrophs use. Chemistry On the board write the light energy to power chemical reactions that. chemical equation for photosynthesis convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen. light and energy rich carbohydrates such as sugars. 6CO2 6H2O energy C6 H12O6 6O2 and starches This process shown in Figure 3 5. Ask Which element does each let top is responsible for adding oxygen to and. ter in the formulas stand for C for removing carbon dioxide from Earth s atmos. carbon O oxygen H hydrogen phere In fact were it not for photosynthetic. Explain that the equation can be read autotrophs the air would not contain enough. as Six molecules of carbon dioxide oxygen for you to breathe. and six molecules of water combine On land plants are the main autotrophs. in the presence of light energy to Light In freshwater ecosystems and in the sunlit upper. yield one molecule of glucose and six Energy layers of the ocean algae are the main autotrophs. Water Carbohydrates Oxygen Photosynthetic bacteria the most common of. molecules of oxygen Ask Why are dioxide, the numbers needed in the equa which are the cyanobacteria sy an oh bak. PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN PLANTS TEER ee uh are important in certain wet. tion Without numbers the equation,ecosystems such as tidal flats and salt marshes.
wouldn t be balanced If students are, not familiar with this concept write Life Without Light Although plants are the. the equation on the board and then most visible and best known autotrophs some. cross out the balanced pairs 6 car autotrophs can produce food in the absence of. bon atoms 6C on the left and 6 light Such autotrophs rely on energy within the. Bacterial Cell, carbon atoms C6 on the right 18 chemical bonds of inorganic molecules such as. oxygen atoms 6O2 6O on the left Hydrogen sulfide and oxygen hydrogen sulfide When organisms use chemical. and 18 O6 6O2 on the right 12 combine forming sulfur compounds energy to produce carbohydrates the process is. hydrogen atoms 6H2 on the left called chemosynthesis kee moh SIN thuh. Chemical Energy, and 12 H12 on the right sis as shown in Figure 3 5 bottom This. process is performed by several types of bacteria,Cells make carbohydrates using. carbon dioxide from sea water Surprisingly these bacteria represent a large. Consumers Deep Sea proportion of living autotrophs Some chemosyn. Vent thetic bacteria live in very remote places on. Build Science Skills Earth such as volcanic vents on the deep ocean. Classifying Divide the class into floor and hot springs in Yellowstone Park Others. small groups and provide each live in more common places such as tidal. CHEMOSYNTHESIS IN SULFUR BACTERIA, group with photocopies of a wide marshes along the coast.
variety of organisms including, Figure 3 5 Sunlight is the main energy source What is the difference between. plants multicellular algae inverte for life on Earth Some types of organisms rely on photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. brates and vertebrates Then have the energy stored in inorganic chemical com. each group sort its organisms into pounds Plants use the energy from sunlight to carry. two piles producers and con out the process of photosynthesis Other autotrophs. such as sulfur bacteria use the energy stored in, sumers and then sort the chemical bonds for chemosynthesis In both cases Many organisms including animals fungi and. consumers into piles representing the energy rich carbohydrates are produced many bacteria cannot harness energy directly. four subcategories of herbivores from the physical environment as autotrophs do. carnivores omnivores and decom The only way these organisms can acquire energy. posers is from other organisms Organisms that rely on. other organisms for their energy and food supply,are called heterotrophs HET ur oh trohfs. Heterotrophs are also called consumers,UNIVERSAL ACCESS. Inclusion Special Needs Advanced Learners, To engage students interest in feeding relation Point out to interested students this sentence on.
ships and ecological pyramids ask students page 68 about chemosynthetic bacteria. about feeding relationships with which they Surprisingly these bacteria represent a large. may have some familiarity For example most proportion of living autotrophs Challenge stu. students will know that birds in their neighbor dents to find out about such bacteria including. hood feed on either seeds and berries or small those that live in hot springs and those that live. animals such as worms and insects Elicit from in the deep ocean around vents Have students. students ideas about relative numbers at differ prepare reports about what they find and pre. ent trophic levels energy transfer and biomass sent them to the class when students study bac. comparisons teria in Chapter 19,68 Chapter 3,0062 0080 bi c07 te 3 7 06 2 12 PM Page 69. There are many different types of heterotrophs Herbivores. obtain energy by eating only plants Some herbivores are cows Relationships. caterpillars and deer Carnivores including snakes dogs. and owls eat animals Humans bears crows and other,Use Visuals. omnivores eat both plants and animals Detritivores Figure 3 7 After students have. dee TRYT uh vawrz such as mites earthworms snails and studied the figure ask Among the. crabs feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter organisms shown which are. collectively called detritus Another important group of het autotrophs and which are het. erotrophs called decomposers breaks down organic matter erotrophs The algae are autotrophs. Bacteria and fungi such as the one in Figure 3 6 are decomposers the others are heterotrophs Among. the heterotrophs which are herbi, Feeding Relationships vores and which are carnivores. The zooplankton are herbivores the, What happens to the energy in an ecosystem when one organ. other heterotrophs are carnivores, ism eats another That energy moves along a one way path.
Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction What kind of heterotrophs might. Figure 3 6 This fungus enter this food chain when the. from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs growing on the forest floor is a. producers and then to various heterotrophs consumers decomposer that obtains nutrients shark dies and falls to the ocean. The relationships between producers and consumers connect by breaking down dead and floor Detritivores and decomposers. organisms into feeding networks based on who eats whom decaying plants and animals It is. called a coral fungus because of its,color and shape Classifying Is. Food Chains The energy stored by producers can be passed the fungus a producer or a consumer. through an ecosystem along a food chain a series of steps in Build Science Skills. which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten For Applying Concepts Show students. example in a prairie ecosystem a food chain might consist of a some acorns sunflower seeds or. producer such as grass that is fed upon by a herbivore such as other common type of seed and ask. a grazing antelope The herbivore is in turn fed upon by a Where did these seeds come from. carnivore such as a coyote In this situation the carnivore is A plant What kind of animal might. only two steps removed from the producer eat these seeds Depending on the. In some marine food chains such as the one in Figure 3 7 type of seeds used a squirrel chick. the producers are microscopic algae that are eaten by very small adee mouse or chipmunk might eat. organisms called zooplankton zoh oh PLANK tun The zoo. them What kind of animal might, plankton in turn are eaten by small fish such as herring The. eat the animal that ate the seeds, herring are eaten by squid which are ultimately eaten by large. A larger carnivore such as a fox hawk, fish such as sharks In this food chain the top carnivore is four. steps removed from the producer,or coyote What is the feeding rela.
tionship that you just described, Figure 3 7 Food chains show the one called A food chain What happens. way flow of energy in an ecosystem In this to energy in the food chain. marine food chain energy is passed from the Energy is transferred from the organ. producers algae to four different groups of,ism being eaten to the organism doing. the eating Some energy from lower,trophic levels is lost as heat What. was the original source of energy,in the food chain The sun. Small fish,Zooplankton,Algae Shark,FACTS AND FIGURES.
Energy moves up the chain feed directly on the producers Above the primary. In nature simple straight line food chains are consumers are secondary consumers then tertiary. rare primarily because few species eat or are consumers and in some food chains quaternary. eaten by only one other species Nevertheless a consumers Not many food chains extend beyond. food chain is a useful model for studying the four consumer levels Decomposers also known Answers to. transfer of energy and materials in an ecosystem as saprotrophs detritivores and parasites. Photosynthesis uses light, All food chains on land begin with producers organisms that live in or on other organisms and. energy Chemosynthesis uses the ener, that use light energy to synthesize organic com obtain energy from them can occupy any level. gy stored in chemical bonds, pounds Primary consumers are herbivores that of a food chain. Figure 3 6 A consumer,The Biosphere 69,0062 0080 bi c07 te 3 7 06 2 12 PM Page 70. 3 2 continued,How is a food chain organized, Objective Students will be able to Materials 2 wide mouth jars 2 pieces of flexible.
describe the organization of a sim screening 2 rubber bands 2 bean seedlings in small. pots or paper cups pea aphids ladybird beetles,ple food chain. Skill Focus Classifying Procedure, Materials 2 wide mouth jars 2 1 Place a potted bean seedling in each of the. pieces of flexible screening 2 rub two jars 5 Place both jars in a sunny location Observe the jars. ber bands 2 bean seedlings in small 2 Add 20 aphids to one jar and cover the jar with each day for one week and record your observa. pots or paper cups pea aphids screening to prevent the aphids from escaping Use tions each day Water the seedlings as needed. ladybird beetles a rubber band to attach the screening to the jar. 3 Add 20 aphids and 4 ladybird beetles to the second Analyze and Conclude. Time 15 minutes for initial setup 5, jar Cover the second jar as you did the first one 1 Observing What happened to the aphids and the. minutes per day for one week to 4 Formulating Hypotheses Record your hypothesis seedling in the jar without the ladybird beetles In. observe and record about how the presence of the ladybird beetles will the jar with the ladybird beetles How can you. Advance Prep affect the survival of the aphids and the bean explain this difference. About two weeks before students seedling Also record your prediction of what will 2 Classifying Identify each organism in the jars as. happen to the organisms in each jar during the a producer or a consumer. do this activity plant bean seeds in,pots or paper cups Each group will. need two seedlings Plant extras in,case some plants do not thrive.
Aphids and ladybird beetles may be, collected outdoors or ordered from Food Webs In most ecosystems feeding relationships are. a biological supply house Ladybird more complex than can be shown in a food chain Consider for. beetles also may be available at example the relationships in a salt marsh Although some. garden centers as natural pest producers including marsh grass and other salt tolerant. controls If the organisms are col plants are eaten by water birds grasshoppers and other. lected outdoors make sure they are herbivores most producers complete their life cycles then die. returned to their original locations and decompose Decomposers convert the dead plant matter to. at the conclusion of the activity detritus which is eaten by detritivores such as sandhoppers. Because it may be difficult to The detritivores are in turn eaten by smelt and other small fish. Some of those consumers will also eat detritus directly Add. obtain pea aphids and ladybird, mice larger fish and hawks to the scenario and feeding rela. beetles you may want to use crick,tionships can get very confusing. ets and praying mantises instead, When the feeding relationships among the various organ. Safety Caution students to handle isms in an ecosystem form a network of complex interactions. organisms without harming them ecologists describe these relationships as a food web A food. Make sure they wash their hands web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together The food. with soap and warm water before web in Figure 3 8 for example shows the feeding relationships. leaving the lab in a salt marsh community,Strategies.
Make the aphids and ladybird Trophic Levels Each step in a food chain or food web is. Trophic originates from the Greek called a trophic TRAHF ik level Producers make up the. beetles available to students in a, word trophe which means food first trophic level Consumers make up the second third or. central distribution center, or nourishment What do you higher trophic levels Each consumer depends on the trophic. You may want to let students think are the original meanings level below it for energy. 3 2 1 Identify the source of energy for life processes 3 2 2 Trace the flow of energy through living systems 3 2 3 Evaluate the efficiency of energy transfer among organ isms in an ecosystem Vocabulary Preview To help students understand related terms in this section write the follow ing sets of words and word parts on the board

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