28 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Notes

28 Human Development Notes-Free PDF

  • Date:08 Jan 2021
  • Views:5
  • Downloads:0
  • Pages:16
  • Size:704.53 KB

Share Pdf : 28 Human Development Notes

Download and Preview : 28 Human Development Notes


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : 28 Human Development Notes


Transcription:

MODULE 9 Human Development,Human resource,development in India 28 1 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX. The Human Development Index HDI is a composite index that measures the. average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human develop. ment These basic dimensions are a long and healthy life knowledge and a decent. standard of living The above mentioned dimensions are measured by the follow. ing indicators, 1 A long and healthy life is measured by life expectancy at birth. 2 Knowledge is measured by the adult literacy rate with two thirds weight. and the combined primary secondary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio with. one third weight, 3 A decent standard of living is measured by GDP per capita in purchasing. Power Parity PPP US Dollars, But we should know that the purpose of its construction is not to give a complete. picture of human development rather to provide a measure which goes beyond. the traditional measurement of development i e income Therefore HDI is a ba. rometer for changes in human well being and for comparing progress in different. regions Human development concept is based on the idea of development as a. freedom It is about building human capabilities the range of things they can do. and what they can be Individual freedoms and rights matter a great deal But. these freedoms and rights are restricted for some because they are poor ill illiter. ate discriminated against threatened by violent conflict or denied a political voice. etc That is why in the inagural issue of Human Development Report 1990 the. authors defined these above mentioned indicators as essential choices and the. absence of which can block many other opportunities Therefore they defined. human development as a process of widening people s choices as well as raising. the level of well being To achieve this there is a need for re orientation of our. process of development In other words development must revolve around the. people not people around the development, The basic difference between economic development and human development is.
that economic development entirely focuses on the increase of income whereas. the human development believes in expanding and widening of all aspects of hu. man life be it economic social political cultural etc In economic aspect human. development is one of the essential elements The basic idea behind this is that it is. the use of income and not the income itself that decides the human choices Since. the real wealth of a nation is its people therfore the goal of development should. be the enrichment of human life, Apart from Human Development Index HDI the other four indicators of human. development have been selected which were used by the Human Development. Report These are, i Human Poverty Index for developing countries HPI 1. 286 GEOGRAPHY,Human Development MODULE 9,Human resource. ii Human Poverty Index for selected DECD Countries HPI 2 development in India. iii Gender related Development Index GDI,iv Gender Empowered Measurement GEM. Out of these given HDI HPI 1 and GDI are calculated by three common dimen. sions a long and healthy life knowledge and a decent standard of living But. some of indicators are different within these dimensions Let us know their simi Notes. larities and differences from the table given below. Table No 28 1 A comparative analysis of Dimensions used. in HDI HPI 1 and GDI,Sl Indices HDI HPI 1 GDI, 1 A long and Life expectancy at birth Probability at birth of Life expectancy at birth.
healthy life not swimming at age 40, 2 Knowledge Adult literacy rate Adult literacy rate Adult literacy rate. with two third,weight and, The combined primary Percentage of the Combined primary. secondary and gross population without secondary and tertiary. enrolment with one sustainable access gross enrolment ratio. third weight to an improved water, 3 A decent GDP per capita adju The percentage of Estimated earned. standard of sted to purchasing power children under weight income PPP in US. living parity in US for age of one year,28 2 WHY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. Paul Streeten a development economist identified six reasons in favour of the. human development The reasons are as follows, 1 The ultimate purpose of the entire exercise of development is to improve the.
human conditions and to enlarge people s choice, 2 Human development is a means to higher productivity A well nourished. healthy educated skilled alert labour force is the most productive asset. Therefore investments in these sectors are justified on ground of productivity. 3 It helps in reducing the rate of growth of population. 4 Human development is friendly to the physical environment also Deforesta. tion desertification and soil erosion decline when poverty declines. 5 Improved living conditions and reduced poverty contribute to a healthy civil. society and greater social stability, 6 Human development also helps in reducing civil disturbance in the society. and in increasing political stabililty,GEOGRAPHY 287. MODULE 9 Human Development,Human resource, development in India Till now you might have understood the importance of human development Let us. now have a closer look at India s position at international level as far as human. development is concerned We will also try to find out the reasons for low levels of. human development in India,28 3 INDIA TRENDS OF HDI.
Notes According to Human Development Report 2005 India s rank was 127 out of. 177 countries of the world All the 177 countries are grouped under three catego. ries These are high medium and low The countries which had value between. 0 800 and above are termed as high The countries which had value between. 0 500 to 0 799 were ranked under medium categories and countries which had. value less than 0 500 were ranked as low human development countries India. was placed almost at the bottom of the table in the medium level category Our. neighbouring countries like China 85 Sri Lanka 93 Maldives 96 remained. well above the India s position Other neighbouring countries like Myanamar 129. Bhutan 134 Pakistan 135 and Nepal 136 were placed just below India The. countries which lied below India were mostly from Africa and rest few countries. were from Asia If we look at India s situation over the time we can definitely say. that it has improved a lot over the last thirty years Table 28 2. Table No 28 2 INDIA Human Development Index Trends. in India 1975 2005,Years 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005. India 0 412 0 438 0 476 0 513 0 546 0 577 0 602,Source Human Development Report 2005 p 225. This improvement is not sufficient enough There are many small countries of Asia. and Africa like Fiji Mongolia Tunisia etc are well above India India has to. work very hard to be placed among the top countries in the medium human devel. opment category 0 501 0 800 If the present trend continues it needs minimum. 30 years to enter the high human development category And for this a rigorous. effort particularly in the social sector like education health and economic sector. particularly reduction of poverty are required The following are the reasons to. keep India at the bottom of human development a rapid increase in population. b large number of adult illiterates and low gross enrolment ratio c high drop. out rates d inadequate government expenditure on education and health e. large proportion of under weight children as well as under nourished people f. very poor sanitation facilities and low access to essential life saving medicines. Apart from HDI the performance of India is also not very encouraging as far as. Gender Development Index GDI and Human Poverty Index HDI are con. cerned According to Human Development Report 2005 India s position in GDI. was 98 out of 140 countries and in HPI 1 was 58 out of 103 countries. 288 GEOGRAPHY,Human Development MODULE 9,Human resource. development in India,INTEXT QUESTIONS 28 1,1 What is Human Development Index. 2 Name the three dimensions and their respective indicator used for measuring Notes. 3 Differentiate between human development and economic development. 4 How do we measure Human Poverty Index HPI 1 for developing countries. 5 What is India s position in Human Development Index according to Human. Development Report 2005 Name any two neighbouring countries of India. who are doing better than India,28 4 SOCIO ECONOMIC INDICATORS.
Let us now have a brief discussion about the various socio economic indicators of. India that are responsible for human development As mentioned earlier we will. discuss health and education under social indicators and general economy with. reference to per capital income and poverty,Health Situations in India. As you know health is one of the three dimensions of human development Though. under health life expectancy is considered as the indicator but we should know. other health related demographic indicators like birth rate death rate total fertility. rate infant mortality rate etc as well as about health facilities like hospital dispen. sary beds in the hospital number of doctors and nurses etc to have a holistic. GEOGRAPHY 289,MODULE 9 Human Development,Human resource. development in India view about the health situation in the country Definitely today the health situation. has improved a lot since Independence, Today there have been significant demographic changes and epidemological shifts. have occurred India has been able to control various communicable diseases. However under communicable diseases Vector Born Disease and AIDS continue. to be critical areas of concern With the decline in death rates increase in life. Notes expectancy and changing life styles there has been an increase in non communicable. diseases like cardio vascular ailments cancer cataract induced blindness diabetes. etc In all the above mentioned diseases the disease of AIDS pose unique challenge. because no cure is available for till today Secondly India ranks second in the. world next only to South Africa with an estimated population of 5 206 million. persons infected by HIV AIDS by December 2005 Recently according to. UNAIDS estimate India has the largest number of HIV AIDS population. surpassing South Africa Though India is placed among the list of low prevalence. country our problem is the large population base Specifically in the active. reproductive age group of 15 49 years You can find out the total number of. infected persons from the age composition table no 27 3 in the previous lesson If. we really want young people to prevent HIV infection we have to enhance our life. skills in the following ways, Understand and feel good about yourself Have faith in yourself Understand. your own strengths and weaknesses Maintain your self respect and self. confidence, Be positive in your attitude towards life Be ready to learn from experiences.
even if they are not pleasant, In difficult situations try to identify the cause of the problem Identify the best. solutions available and then follow them, Share your concerns with others and seek timely help when needed. Adopt a healthy lifestyle,Make responsible decisions. Seek reliable information and make informed choices and decisions. Think of the consequences of your decisions and actions do not act hastily. and impulsively, Learn from the experiences of others we can benefit from the mistakes of. Manage your stress by sharing your concerns with others and by seeking help. from parents teachers friends and counselors,Have the courage to say no to peer pressure.
Be caring and empathetic towards people who need special care such as. people living with HIV AIDS PLWHA, Seek out and share information on sensitive reproductive health issues. 290 GEOGRAPHY,Human Development MODULE 9,Human resource. Study the following table to know health related indicators development in India. Table 28 3 INDIA Selected Health Indicators 1951 2003. Sl No Indicator 1951 2003,1 Birth Rate per thousand 40 8 24 8. 2 Death Rate per thousand 25 1 8 0 Notes,3 Infant Mortality Rate 146 60. per thousand live births 1951 61,4 Child 0 4 years Mortality 57 3 17 8.
Rate per thousand children 1972 2002,5 Total Fertility Rate 6 0 3 0. 6 Life Expectancy Rate Male 37 2 63 9 2001 06,Female 36 2 66 9 2001 06. Source Economic Survey 2005 06 Ministry of Finance Govt of India p 25. Note The figure given in the brackets refer to the year which is different from the. reference year mentioned in the particular columns of the table. I am sure you have read the table carefully As we said earlier that there has been. significant improvement in each health indicator But the desired result has not. been achieved in reducing birth rate infant mortality rate as well as total fertility. rate There is a need for sustained effort particularly in remote rural areas where. health care system is almost non functional As far as health care facilities in the. country are concerned it has increased in leaps and bounds. Table 28 4 INDIA Trends in Health Care Facilities 1951 2004. Sl No Facilities 1951 2004,1 Sub centre Primary Health centre 725 1 68 986. Community Health Centre,2 Dispensaries and Hospitals 9 209 38 031 2002. 3 Beds Private and Public 1 17 198 9 14 543 2002,4 Nursing Personnel 18 054 8 36 000.
5 Doctors Modern System 61 800 6 25 131, Source Economic Survey 2005 06 Ministry of Finance Govt of India p 212. Human Development GEOGRAPHY 28 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Whenever we think about development we normally tend to think about the material and economic development Materials may include house landed prop erty motor vehicle jewellery etc Again all these material assets are converted in terms of money whenever or wherever the need arises Till today the entire world is divided into two groups of

Related Books