2011 Beaufort Sea Ac ve Acous cs Survey for Marine Mammal

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2011 BEAUFORT SEA ACTIVE ACOUSTICS SURVEY,FOR MARINE MAMMAL AND PELAGIC FISH. Prepared for,Beaufort Regional Environmental Assessment BREA. ArcticNet Inc,Kongsberg Maritime AS,BP Exploration Operating Company Limited. Imperial Oil Resources Ventures Limited,ExxonMobil. Prepared and Edited by,M Geoffroy1 S Rousseau1 3 2.
ArcticNet Inc Qu bec Canada,BP America Inc Houston USA. May 21st 2012, 2011 Beaufort Sea active acoustic survey for marine mammal and pelagic fish detection. Fisheries research and marine mammal components of the 2011 ArcticNet Kongsberg Maritime. acoustic program were under the responsibility of two Principal Investigators PI. F isheries research component, Prof Louis Fortier collaborators Maxime Geoffroy Shani Rousseau and Keith L vesque. Canada Research Chair,D partement de Biologie,1045 avenue de la M decine. Universit Laval,Qu bec QC CANADA,Tel 418 656 5646,louis fortier bio ulaval ca.
M arine mammal component, Dr Frank Reier Knudsen collaborators QWKLD 3 DQG 2OH HUQW Gammels ter. Kongsberg Maritime AS,Strandpromenaden 50,NO 3183 Horten. P O Box 111,Tel 47 33 03 41 00,frank reier knudsen simrad com. F unding for this program was provided by,BP Exploration Operating Company Limited. Kongsberg Maritime,ArcticNet and the Amundsen Program.
Beaufort Regional Environmental Assessment BREA,Imperial Oil Resources Ventures Limited. ExxonMobil,2011 Beaufort Sea active acoustics survey for ii. marine mammal and pelagic fish detection, As part of a large environmental research effort in the Canadian Arctic a fisheries sonar Simrad. SX90 and a multi frequency echosounder Simrad EK60 mounted on the Canadian research. icebreaker CCGS Amundsen were used to conduct a study on pelagic fish and marine mammal. detection The echosounder was continuously operated while adaptive and opportunistic sonar. surveys were conducted from July 20th to August 10th in the St Lawrence and eastern Canadian. Arctic and from August 27th to October 3rd in the Beaufort Sea The fisheries component of this. project was aimed at validating the hypothesis that arctic cod Boreogadus saida form schools. near the surface during summer fall The acoustic surveys conducted in the Beaufort Sea area in. 2011 suggest that instead age 0 fish form a scattered layer in the top 100 m of the water. column whereas larger fish age 1 form a distinct layer near the bottom over the slope and in. deep water areas The main goals of the marine mammal component of this study were to assess. the ability of the SX90 sonar to detect Arctic cetaceans and to develop acoustic recognition. criteria for species identification Acoustic detections were validated by trained Inuit and. biologist Marine Wildlife Observers MWOs During all 367 hours of sonar operations 126. cetaceans were visually sighted by MWOs of which 60 59 bowhead whales Balaena. mysticetus and 1 minke whale Balaenoptera acrostrutoata were also detected by the sonar. Additional observations of pinnipeds were recorded both by MWOs and sonar operators Most. cetaceans were sighted outside the 2000 m maximum detection range of the sonar but 92 of. the whales sighted within 2000 m were acoustically detected Target Strength TS of bowhead. whales varied from 15 dB to 10 dB and TS of seals from 34 dB to 3 dB Based on recognition. criteria established during this study echoes of two bowhead whales and one seal were identified. without validation by MWOs Although the SX90 sonar efficiently detected cetaceans at a range. up to 2000 m the detection range varied greatly with changes in the physical properties of the. water column and real time identification requires a number of technological improvements. identified in this report,2011 Beaufort Sea active acoustics survey for iii. marine mammal and pelagic fish detection,Table of contents.
Table of contents iv,List of tables vi,List of figures vii. 1 Introduction 1,1 1 Project overview 1,1 2 Fisheries research component 1. 1 3 Marine mammal detection component 3,2 Material and methods 5. 2 1 EK60 echosounder 5,2 2 SX90 sonar 5,2 3 Survey design and area 7. 2 4 Collaboration with MWOs 9, 2 4 1 Monitoring of marine mammal negative behaviours 10.
2 5 Data analysis 10, 2 5 1 Determination of the SX90 sonar theoretical detection range 11. 2 5 2 Fish TS analysis 13,2 5 3 Marine mammal TS analysis 13. 3 Results 15, 3 1 Theoretical detection range and ray tracing of the SX90 sonar 17. 3 2 Fisheries research component 20, 3 2 1 Detection of pelagic fish schools with the SX90 sonar in the St Lawrence River and in. Cumberland Sound 20, 3 2 2 Detection of pelagic fish layers with the EK60 echosounder 22.
3 3 Marine mammal detection component 24, 3 3 1 Detection of marine mammals with the SX90 sonar and validation by MWOs 24. 3 3 2 Echo track characteristics of marine mammals 32. 3 3 3 Acoustic signature of marine mammals 35, 3 3 4 Incident angle dependency of Target Strength 38. 3 3 5 Non validated marine mammal detections 39,3 4 Iceberg detections 40. 2011 Beaufort Sea active acoustics survey for iv,marine mammal and pelagic fish detection. 4 Recommendations for future acoustic surveys 40,4 1 SX90 hardware and software improvements 40.
4 2 Survey design recommendations 42,5 Summary and conclusions 44. 5 1 Fisheries research component 44,5 2 Marine mammal detection component 44. 5 3 General conclusions 46,6 Acknowledgments 46,7 References 47. 8 Appendices 52, Appendix 8 1 Results from the SX90 sonar passive noise test conducted in the St Lawrence. River on July 20th 2011 52, Appendix 8 2 Details of simulated detection ranges 53.
2011 Beaufort Sea active acoustics survey for v,marine mammal and pelagic fish detection. List of tables, Table 1 Beam width of vertical and horizontal transmission modes corresponding to Normal. setting for operational frequencies ranging from 20 to 30 kHz 6. Table 2 TS FRUUHFWLRQ IDFWRUV 76 LQ G UH 3D DQG VWDQGDUG GHYLDWLRQ LQ G UH 3D IRU. each frequency of the Simrad SX90 sonar onboard the CCGS Amundsen Values were calculated. with the beam mode set to Normal 14, Table 3 Detailed summary of the adaptive acoustic surveys conducted in 2011 onboard the. CCGS Amundsen Note that survey SA 4 was merged with survey SA 1 16. Table 4 Summary of the opportunistic acoustic surveys conducted in 2011 onboard the CCGS. Amundsen 16, Table 5 Theoretical average detection ranges based on simulations computed with the Lybin. software for 78 CTD casts conducted in the Canadian Beaufort Sea from August 27th to October. Table 6 Summary of MWO validated marine mammal detections by the SX90 and of MWO. sightings throughout the 2011 active acoustic survey 26. Table 7 Details of all marine mammals detected with the SX90 sonar and validated by MWOs. 0D LPXP GHWHFWLRQ UDQJHV VWDUWLQJ ZLWK LQGLFDWH WKDW WKH DQLPDO FRXOG KDYH EHHQ GHWHFWHG. beyond the display range of the sonar TS are included for each frequency at which the animal. ZDV GHWHFWHG LQ WKH QRUPDO EHDP DQG RU WKH DFRXVWLF FKDQQHO QRWH WKH HFKR LV QRW FOHDU. indicates that the echo was detected on the sonar screen but was not clear enough to conduct a. TS analysis 28, Table 8 Details of non validated marine mammals detected by the SX90 sonar Maximum.
GHWHFWLRQ UDQJHV VWDUWLQJ ZLWK LQGLFDWH WKDW WKH DQLPDO FRXOG KDYH EHHQ GHWHFWHG EH RQG WKH. display range of the sonar TS are included for each frequency at which the animal was detected. LQ WKH QRUPDO EHDP DQG RU WKH DFRXVWLF Fhannel 39, Table 9 Severity scale for ranking observed behavioral responses of free ranging marine. mammals to anthropogenic sound during SX90 adaptive surveys adapted from Southall et al. 7DEOH 3DVVLYH QRLVH G UH 3D PHDVXUHG DURXQG WKH VKLS 7HVWV ZHUH FRQGXFWHG DW. 7DEOH 3DVVLYH QRLVH G UH 3D PHDVXUHG DW VWDEOH VSHHG GXULQJ DFFHOHUDWLRQ DQG GXULQJ. deceleration of the ship Bearing is 0 for all measurements and tests were conducted at 26 kHz. LQGLFDWHV WKDW QR GDWD DUH DYDLODEOH 52, Table 12 Simulated detection ranges at 10 m depth based on CTD casts conducted in the. Canadian Beaufort Sea from August 27th to October 3rd Calculations were made with the. Norwegian Lybin software 53,2011 Beaufort Sea active acoustics survey for vi. marine mammal and pelagic fish detection,List of figures. Figure 1 EK60 beam extent illustrating limited ability to detect fish in the surface layer 2. Figure 2 Schematic representation of the SX90 omni directional beam 3. Figure 3 Schematic representation of a omni beam principle the beam can be tilted from 10. up to 60 degrees down b 60 degrees vertical slice and c omni vertical combination 6. Figure 4 SX90 sonar interface onboard the CCGS Amundsen 6. Figure 5 Areas where opportunistic red line and adaptive Cumberland Sound yellow star. surveys were conducted from July 20th to August 10th leg 1 in the St Lawrence and the eastern. Canadian Arctic 7, LJXUH 0DS RI WKH VKLS V WUDFN GXULQJ DGDSWLYH VXUYH V 6 01 red SA 02 green SA 03.
purple and SA 05 blue conducted from September 1st to 29th Yellow polygons indicate. known whale feeding areas provided by Fisheries Oceans Canada 8. LJXUH 0DS RI WKH VKLS V WUDFN UHG OLQH GXULQJ RSSRUWXQLVWLF VXUYH V FRQGXFWHG IURP XJXVW. 27th to October 3rd in the Canadian Beaufort Sea Yellow polygons indicate known whale feeding. areas provided by Fisheries Oceans Canada 9, Figure 8 Examples of a bowhead whale in a a radial plot and b a surface plot generated from. SX90 sonar data and using Matlab 11, Figure 9 Parameters used for the simulation of ray tracing propagation losses and probability of. detection with the Norwegian Lybin software 12, Figure 10 Triplane target reflector 50x50 cm with a TS of G UH 3D DW N 12. Figure 11 Frequency response of the 63 mm calibration sphere from 15 to 30 kHz 15. Figure 12 Example of transmission losses used for TS calculations solid line compared with. transmission losses computed with the Lybin software dashed line based on a representative. CTD cast conducted on September 28th in the Canadian Beaufort Sea In this case an acoustic. channel was present and TS calculations under estimated losses at a range 100 m were accurate. from 100 350 m and over estimated losses at a range 350 m 17. Figure 13 Examples of the sound beam pattern and probability of detection of a target color. scale by the SX90 sonar computed with the Lybin software in a the presence and b the. absence of an acoustic channel based on the temperature salinity profile 18. Figure 14 Examples of ray trace simulations computed with the Lybin software for CTD casts. conducted in the Canadian Beaufort Sea in a the presence and b the absence of an acoustic. channel Note the downward bending typical for the area during summer fall Bottom depth was. 300 m and 65 m respectively 19, Figure 15 Example of annular noise created by bottom refraction and of a bowhead whale. GHWHFWHG LQ WKH QRUPDO EHDP RWWRP GHSWK ZDV P 20,2011 Beaufort Sea active acoustics survey for vii.
marine mammal and pelagic fish detection, Figure 16 Example of a fish school detected in the St Lawrence River on July 20th 21. LJXUH 1XQDYXW RYHUQPHQW V UHVHDUFK WUDZOHU YHVVHO 1XOLDMXN 21. Figure 18 Example of a 1 hour EK60 echogram Sv minimum threshold 80 dB in the. Canadian Beaufort Sea in September 2011 Two distinct layers of pelagic fish can be observed. in the top 100 m and at 350 m near the bottom 22, Figure 19 Ichthyoplankton nets deployed from the CCGS Amundsen 23. Figure 20 Rectangular Mid Water Trawl before deployment from the CCGS Amundsen 23. Figure 21 Frequency distribution of the Target Strength TS in dB re 1m2 of individual fish in. the Canadian Beaufort sea from September 7th to September 22nd for a the surface layer 0 100. m and b the bottom layer 100 m 24, Figure 22 Location of 59 bowhead whales black dots and 15 seals red dots detected with the. SX90 sonar from August 27th to October 3rd 2011 All detections were validated by MWOs 25. Figure 23 Echo track charactHULVWLFV RI D WZR ERZKHDG ZKDOHV DQG WKHLU ZDNH GHWHFWHG LQ WKH. DFRXVWLF FKDQQHO DW D UDQJH P E D ERZKHDG ZKDOH DQG LWV ZDNH GHWHFWHG LQ WKH QRUPDO. EHDP DW D UDQJH P F D ULQJHG VHDO GHWHFWHG LQ WKH QRUPDO EHDP DW D UDQJH P DQG. G D EHDUGHG VHDO GHWHFWHG LQ WKH QRUPDO EHDP DW D UDQJH P QQXODU QRLVH GXH WR ERWWRP. refraction is present in panels a c but not in panel d most likely because water stratification. did not result in ray bending 34, Figure 24 Target Strength TS as a function of frequency of the SX90 sonar for a 50 bowhead. whales detected in the acoustic channel range 300 m and b 13 bowhead whales detected in. WKH QRUPDO EHDP UDQJH P F 0HDQ 7DUJHW 6WUHQJWK 76N as a function of frequency in. the acoustic channel DQG WKH QRUPDO EHDP with confidence intervals 36. Figure 25 a Target Strength TS as a function of frequency of the SX90 sonar for 12 ringed. seals solid line and 2 bearded seals dashed line b Mean Target Strength TSN as a function. of frequency for ringed seals solid line and bearded seal dashed line with confidence intervals. No confidence interval means that only one TS value was available for a given frequency 37. Figure 26 Target Strength TS as a function of the angle of incidence relative to the acoustic. beam for five bowhead whales detected in the Beaufort Sea in September 2011 0 is tail or head. on 90 is broadside 39,Figure 27 Detection of the edge of an iceberg .
Kongsberg Maritime AS 2011 Beaufort Sea active acoustic survey for marine mammal and pelagic fish detection Simrad EK60 mounted on the

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