1 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN APPLICATIONS

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16 APPLICATION OF MATLAB FOR DESIGNING NEURAL NETWORKS. SOLUTIONS IN DAIRY PROCESSING,Anand Prakash Ruhil R R B singh and R C Nagpal. 17 APPLICATION OF DIGITAL IMAGING FOR ASSESSING PHYSICAL. PROPERTIES OF FOODS Ruplal Choudhary,18 DYNAMIC MODELING OF DAIRY AND FOOD PROCESSING. OPERATIONS Ruplal Choudhary,19 MODELING OF FOOD PROCESSING OPERATIONS. 20 NIR MODELING FOR QUALITY EVALUATION OF DAIRY AND FOOD. PRODUCTS S N Jha, 21 COMPUTERIZED PROCESS CONTROL IN DAIRY AND FOOD INDUSTRY. K Narsaiah, 22 DETERMINATION AND PREDICTION OF SHELF LIFE OF MOISTURE.
SENSITIVE FOOD PRODUCT BASED ON PRODUCT PACKAGE,ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION I K Sawhney. 23 SENSORS IN RELATION TO COMPUTER APPLICATION IN FOOD. PROCESSCONTROL A A Patel, 24 USE OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE LINDO IN DAIRY PROCESSING. Smita Sirohi,25 STATISTICAL METHODES FOR DAIRY PROCESSING. 26 SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND GENERATION OF SORPTION,PARAMETERS G R Patil R R B Singh. 27 REACTION KINETICS AND MODELING FOR PREDICTION OF SHELF. LIFE OF FOODS G R Patil, 28 e TONGUE IN MONITORING SENSORY QUALITY OF FOODS.
S K Kanawjia, 29 TIME TEMPERATURE INDICATORS IN CONTROLLING QUALITY OF. FOODS R R B Singh, 30 FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEM WITH EMPHASIS ON FOOD AND DAIRY. PROCESSING APPLICATIONS Adesh K Sharma,31 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DATABASES. 32 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM,33 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF SCIENTIFIC DATA. 34 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY,Shuchita Upadhyaya Bhasin.
INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN,Anand Prakash Ruhil. Computer Centre,NDRI Karnal,1 0 Introduction, In early days System Analysis and Design was concerned with man made systems. involving inputs processes and outputs But in modern time system analysis and design. deals with the process of examining and understanding the working of an existing system of. an organization identifying problems if any in it with an objective to improve the same. through better methods technology and procedures The topic of the subject has three basic. components,2 System Analysis,3 System Design, In the present context the components system analysis and system design are interfaced. with the information technology to achieve the basic system objectives using computer. based systems In the above discussion we have used the word system so many times and. the activities of system analysis and design are also revolving around system So the. question arises what is a system,2 0 Definition of System. The word system is possibly the most overused word in our vocabulary Commonly. we speak about political system education system human body system social system. transportation system banking system computer system etc The term system is derived. from a Greek word systema which means an organized relationship among functioning. units or components A system exists because it is designed to achieve one or more. objectives In the present context the word System can be defined as a group of. interdependent components in an organized way which works together to achieve one or. more objectives as per the specified plan The interdependent components may refer to. physical parts or managerial steps and are known as subsystem of a system. 3 0 Characteristics of a System, As defined a system is an organized relationship of various subsystems or components.
to achieve some objectives For example a Computer System has a number of subsystems. like Keyboard Monitor CPU Mouse etc A Computer system is just an organized. relationship of these subsystems in a planned way These subsystems are also dependent on. each other to achieve set targets Thus the definition of a system suggests the following. characteristics that are present in all systems, 1 Organization This refers to structure and order It is the arrangement of. subsystems that help to achieve objectives, 2 Interaction This refers to the manner in which each subsystem functions with other. components of the system, 3 Interdependence This means that subsystems of a system are dependent on one. another They are coordinated and linked together according to a plan. 4 Integration This refers to the holistic view of the system This is concerned with. how subsystems are tied together to achieve central objective. 5 Central Objective Each system is developed in order to achieve centralized. objective All subsystems are developed and integrated to achieve the centralized. objective keeping the unique identity of each subsystem. 4 0 Elements of a System,A system has following key elements. 1 Output and Inputs One of the major objectives of a system is to produce an output. that has value to its user The nature of output may be goods services information. etc Inputs are the elements like material manpower information etc that enter the. system for processing Output is the outcome of processing. 2 Processor s The processor is the element of a system that involves the actual. transformation of input into output It is the operational component of a system. 3 Control The control element guides the system It is the decision making. subsystem that controls the activities governing input processing and output. 4 Feedback Control in a dynamic system is achieved by feedback Feedback. compares the output of a system against performance standards and accordingly. information is communicated to system for necessary action This may yield to. change in input or processing and consequently the output. 5 Environment The environment is a super system within which an organization. operates It is the source of external elements that affect the system It often. determines how a system should work For example the vendors competitors Govt. policies tax department etc may provide constraints and consequently influence the. actual performance of the system, 6 Boundaries and Interface A system should be defined by its boundaries the.
limits that identify its components processes and interrelationships when it. interfaces with another system For example the Market Sale section is concerned. with the sale of milk and milk products collection of sale amount determining. demand of products in near future This section is not concerned about how the. products are being manufactured or what are the manufacturing losses for. production of these products, 5 0 Illustration of Business of a Dairy Plant as a System. Organizations are complex systems that consist of interrelated and intertwine. subsystems Business of a dairy plant can be defined in system terms The business setup of. a dairy plant consists of various components like Milk procurement and billing Processing. of milk Manufacturing of dairy products Inventory of milk and milk products Inventory of. engineering parts Marketing and Sale Quality Control of dairy products Manufacturing. and handling losses Accounting HRD R D etc All these components work together to. enhance profit and produce good quality of milk products based on set procedures and rules. of their interactions It can be observed that each component i e subsystem stated above is. a complete system within itself and these subsystems interact with each other to pass on. necessary information for smooth functioning of each subsystem as well as the whole. system For example marketing section determines the demand of a particular dairy product. for next few days and this information is passed on to Production section to fulfill demand. in the market Changes in one part of system may yield anticipated and unanticipated. consequences in other parts of the system Thus the business of a dairy plant is a system. which receives resources capital people plant milk etc and processes received milk and. produces the milk products,6 0 Types of Systems, Systems have been classified in different ways Common classifications are. 1 Physical and Abstract System,2 Deterministic and Probabilistic System. 3 Open and Closed System,4 Information System,6 1 Physical and Abstract System. Physical system corresponds to tangible i e physically available entities that may. be static or dynamic in operation of a system For example the physical parts of a dairy. plant are equipment employees office establishment furniture building that facilitate. operation of the plant These parts are more or less same and can be seen and counted hence. these are static In contrast daily receipt of milk manufacturing of products per day sale of. products etc keep on changing as per the need hence these are dynamic. Abstract systems are conceptual or non physical entities They may be as straight. forward as formulas of relationships among set of variables or models the abstract. conceptualization of physical situations A model is a representation of a real or a planned. 6 2 Deterministic and Probabilistic System, Deterministic system is one in which the occurrence of all events is perfectly.
predictable Under the defined description of a system state at a given particular time and of. its operation the next state can be perfectly predicted For example numerically controlled. machine are deterministic in nature, Probabilistic system is one in which the occurrence of events can not be perfectly. predicted An example of such system is status of items in inventory occurrences of a. telephone call in a particular time period etc,6 3 Open and Closed System. Open systems are those systems which interact with its environment and have many. interfaces with outer world Open system permits interaction across its boundaries and. receives inputs from and provides outputs to the outside These systems are usually adaptive. i e their interaction with environment is such as to favour their continued existence For. example information systems must adapt to the changing demands of the users A human. being is also an example of open system, Closed systems are isolated from environmental influences i e they do not interact. with its environment and do not adopt changes Such systems are rare but relatively closed. systems are common A relatively closed system is one which controls its input and so is. protected from environmental disturbances For example a computer program is relatively. closed system which processes predefined inputs in a predefined way Closed or relatively. closed systems are difficult to survive for a longer time since they do not interact with their. changing environment and will eventually decline,6 4 Information System. Information regarding a subject helps in taking decision with higher confidence. since it reduces uncertainty about a state or event It provides instructions commands and. feedback It determines the nature of relationships among decision makers An information. system is the basis for interaction between users at different level An information system. can be defined as a set of devices procedures and operating systems designed around user. based criteria to produce information and communicate it to the user for planning control. and performance, In order to work as an effective unit the business has to make use of information An.
information system is often regarded as another subsystem Information system provides. information for decision and control and acts as linking mechanism between the functional. subsystems The major information systems are formal informal and computer based. 1 Formal Information System A formal information system is concerned with the. communication flow and work flow on the basis of authority or responsibility at. different levels within an organization from top to bottom level Information is. formally disseminated in form of instructions memos or reports from top. management to the intended user in the organization The formal information is very. useful in achieving organization objectives and better control within an organization. 2 Informal Information System Informal information system is concerned with the. personal needs and support related needs of an employee It is an employee based. system designed to meet personnel and professional needs and to help solve work. related problems It also funnels information upward through indirect channels Thus. it is a useful system because it works within the framework of the business and its. stated policies, 3 Computer based System The computer based information system uses the strength. and capabilities of a computer system for handling business applications to produce. information A computer based system has the capability for storing large volume of. data processing the data efficiently doing complex computations very fast. producing required information instantaneously maintaining up to date online. information and providing the same to decision makers in real time and interacting. with the public databases globally available The computer based information. systems can be further classified into following broad categories based on nature of. applications,a Transaction Processing System TPS,b Management Information System MIS. c Decision Support System DSS,d Internet based Information System. 7 0 System Analysis, System analysis is a process of fact gathering of the present system diagnosing. problems analyzing the business requirements and recommending improvements based on. information gathered System analysis creates a background and base for system design in. order to achieve system objectives Various components involved in system analysis are. project initiation preliminary investigation fact gathering feasibility analysis and input. modeling of food processing operations s n jha 20 nir modeling for quality evaluation of dairy and food products s n jha 21 computerized process control in dairy and food industry k narsaiah 22 determination and prediction of shelf life of moisture sensitive food product based on product package environment interaction i k sawhney 23 sensors in relation to computer application in

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