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THE ROMANTIC PERIOD,1820 1860 FICTION 36 ABOUT THE AUTHOR. Kathryn VanSpanckeren,is Professor of English at the. THE RISE OF REALISM University of Tampa has,1860 1914 47 lectured in American literature. widely abroad and is former,director of the Fulbright spon. MODERNISM AND sored Summer Institute in,American Literature for.
EXPERIMENTATION 1914 1945 international scholars Her. publications include poetry and,scholarship She received. AMERICAN POETRY her Bachelors degree from the, 1945 1990 THE ANTI TRADITION 79 University of California. Berkeley and her Ph D from,Harvard University,AMERICAN PROSE. REALISM AND EXPERIMENTATION 97,CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN POETRY 121. CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN LITERATURE 136,GLOSSARY 157, The following text materials may not be reproduced without permission of the copyright holder.
In a Station of the Metro page 63 by Ezra Pound From Ezra Pound Personae. Copyright 1926 by Ezra Pound Translated and reprinted by permission of New Directions. Publishing Corporation, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening page 65 by Robert Frost From The Poetry of. Robert Frost edited by Edward Connery Lathem Copyright 1923 1969 by Henry Holt and. Co Inc 1951 by Robert Frost Reprinted and translated by permission of Henry Holt and. Disillusionment of Ten O Clock page 66 by Wallace Stevens From Selected Poems by. Wallace Stevens Copyright 1923 and renewed 1951 by Wallace Stevens Reprinted by per. mission of Alfred A Knopf Inc, The Red Wheelbarrow page 66 and The Young Housewife page 67 by William Carlos. Williams Collected Poems 1909 1939 Vol I Copyright 1938 by New Directions. Publishing Corp Reprinted by permission of New Directions. The Negro Speaks of Rivers page 69 by Langston Hughes From Selected Poems by. Langston Hughes Copyright 1926 by Alfred A Knopf Inc and renewed 1954 by Langston. Hughes Reprinted by permission of the publisher, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner page 80 by Randall Jarrell from Randall Jarrell. Selected Poems 1945 by Randall Jarrell 1990 by Mary Von Schrader Jarrell published by. Farrar Straus Giroux Permission granted by Rhoda Weyr Agency New York. The Wild Iris page 125 from The Wild Iris by Louise Gl ck Copyright 1993 by Louise. Gl ck Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Inc. Chickamauga page 126 from Chickamauga by Charles Wright Copyright 1995 by. Charles Wright Reprinted by permission of Farrar Straus and Giroux LLC. To The Engraver of my Skin page 129 from Source by Mark Doty Copyright 2001 by. Mark Doty Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Inc. Mule Heart page 130 from The Lives of The Heart by Jane Hirshfield Copyright 1997. by Jane Hirshfield Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Inc. The Black Snake page 131 copyright 1979 by Mary Oliver Used with permission of the. Molly Malone Cook Literary Agency, The Dead page 132 is from Questions About Angels by Billy Collins 1991 Reprinted by. permission of the University of Pittsburgh Press, The Want Bone page 133 from The Want Bone by Robert Pinsky Copyright 1991 by.
Robert Pinsky Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Inc. Yusef Komunyakaa Facing It page 134 from Dien Cai Dau in Pleasure Dome New and. Collected Poems 2001 by Yusef Komunyakaa and reprinted by permission of Wesleyan. University Press, A number of the illustrations appearing in this volume are also copyrighted as is indicated on. the illustrations themselves These may not be reprinted without the permission of the copy. right holder, The opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the. U S government,some tales of a high god or culture were told. elsewhere However there are no long stan,dardized religious cycles about one supreme. divinity The closest equivalents to Old World,spiritual narratives are often accounts of.
shamans initiations and voyages Apart from,these there are stories about culture heroes. such as the Ojibwa tribe s Manabozho or the, EARLY AMERICAN AND Navajo tribe s Coyote These tricksters are treat. COLONIAL PERIOD TO 1776 ed with varying degrees of respect In one tale. they may act like heroes while in another they, merican literature begins with the orally may seem selfish or foolish Although past. transmitted myths legends tales and authorities such as the Swiss psychologist Carl. lyrics always songs of Indian cultures Jung have deprecated trickster tales as express. There was no written literature among the more ing the inferior amoral side of the psyche con. than 500 different Indian languages and tribal temporary scholars some of them Native. cultures that existed in North America before Americans point out that Odysseus and. the first Europeans arrived As a result Na Prometheus the revered Greek heroes are. tive American oral literature is quite diverse essentially tricksters as well. Narratives from quasi nomadic hunting cultures Examples of almost every oral genre can be. like the Navaho are different from stories of set found in American Indian literature lyrics. tled agricultural tribes such as the pueblo chants myths fairy tales humorous anecdotes. dwelling Acoma the stories of northern lakeside incantations riddles proverbs epics and leg. dwellers such as the Ojibwa often differ radical endary histories Accounts of migrations and an. ly from stories of desert tribes like the Hopi cestors abound as do vision or healing songs and. Tribes maintained their own religions wor tricksters tales Certain creation stories are. shipping gods animals plants or sacred per particularly popular In one well known creation. sons Systems of government ranged from story told with variations among many tribes a. democracies to councils of elders to theocra turtle holds up the world In a Cheyenne version. cies These tribal variations enter into the oral the creator Maheo has four chances to fashion. literature as well the world from a watery universe He sends four. Still it is possible to make a few generaliza water birds diving to try to bring up earth from. tions Indian stories for example glow with rev the bottom The snow goose loon and mallard. erence for nature as a spiritual as well as physi soar high into the sky and sweep down in a dive. cal mother Nature is alive and endowed with but cannot reach bottom but the little coot who. spiritual forces main characters may be animals cannot fly succeeds in bringing up some mud in. or plants often totems associated with a tribe his bill Only one creature humble Grandmother. group or individual The closest to the Indian Turtle is the right shape to support the mud. sense of holiness in later American literature is world Maheo shapes on her shell hence the. Ralph Waldo Emerson s transcendental Over Indian name for America Turtle Island. Soul which pervades all of life The songs or poetry like the narratives range. The Mexican tribes revered the divine from the sacred to the light and humorous. Quetzalcoatl a god of the Toltecs and Aztecs and There are lullabies war chants love songs and. special songs for children s games gambling English Spanish or French The first European. various chores magic or dance ceremonials record of exploration in America is in a. Generally the songs are repetitive Short poem Scandinavian language The Old Norse Vinland. songs given in dreams sometimes have the clear Saga recounts how the adventurous Leif Ericson. imagery and subtle mood associated with and a band of wandering Norsemen settled. Japanese haiku or Eastern influenced imagistic briefly somewhere on the northeast coast of. poetry A Chippewa song runs America probably Nova Scotia in Canada. in the first decade of the 11th century almost 400. A loon I thought it was years before the next recorded European dis. But it was covery of the New World, My love s The first known and sustained contact be. splashing oar tween the Americas and the rest of the world. however began with the famous voyage of an, Vision songs often very short are another dis Italian explorer Christopher Columbus funded.
tinctive form Appearing in dreams or visions by the Spanish rulers Ferdinand and Isabella. sometimes with no warning they may be healing Columbus s journal in his Epistola printed in. hunting or love songs Often they are personal 1493 recounts the trip s drama the terror of. as in this Modoc song the men who feared monsters and thought they. might fall off the edge of the world the near,I mutiny how Columbus faked the ships logs so. the song the men would not know how much farther they. I walk here had travelled than anyone had gone before and. the first sighting of land as they neared America, Indian oral tradition and its relation to American Bartolom de las Casas is the richest source. literature as a whole is one of the richest and least of information about the early contact between. explored topics in American studies The Indian American Indians and Europeans As a young. contribution to America is greater than is often priest he helped conquer Cuba He transcribed. believed The hundreds of Indian words in every Columbus s journal and late in life wrote a long. day American English include canoe tobacco vivid History of the Indians criticizing their. potato moccasin moose persimmon enslavement by the Spanish. raccoon tomahawk and totem Con Initial English attempts at colonization were. temporary Native American writing discussed in disasters The first colony was set up in 1585 at. chapter 8 also contains works of great beauty Roanoke off the coast of North Carolina all its. colonists disappeared and to this day legends, THE LITERATURE OF EXPLORATION are told about blue eyed Croatan Indians of the. ad history taken a different turn the area The second colony was more permanent. United States easily could have been a Jamestown established in 1607 It endured star. part of the great Spanish or French over vation brutality and misrule However the liter. seas empires Its present inhabitants might ature of the period paints America in glowing. speak Spanish and form one nation with Mexico colors as the land of riches and opportunity. or speak French and be joined with Canadian Accounts of the colonizations became world. Francophone Quebec and Montreal renowned The exploration of Roanoke was care. Yet the earliest explorers of America were not fully recorded by Thomas Hariot in A Brief and. True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia is important to recognize its richly cosmopolitan. 1588 Hariot s book was quickly translated into beginnings. Latin French and German the text and pictures, were made into engravings and widely repub THE COLONIAL PERIOD IN. lished for over 200 years NEW ENGLAND, The Jamestown colony s main record the writ t is likely that no other colonists in the his.
ings of Captain John Smith one of its leaders is tory of the world were as intellectual as the. the exact opposite of Hariot s accurate scientif Puritans Between 1630 and 1690 there were. ic account Smith was an incurable romantic and as many university graduates in the northeastern. he seems to have embroidered his adventures section of the United States known as New. To him we owe the famous story of the Indian England as in the mother country an astound. maiden Pocahontas Whether fact or fiction the ing fact when one considers that most educated. tale is ingrained in the American historical imag people of the time were aristocrats who were. ination The story recounts how Pocahontas unwilling to risk their lives in wilderness condi. favorite daughter of Chief Powhatan saved tions The self made and often self educated. Captain Smith s life when he was a prisoner of Puritans were notable exceptions They wanted. the chief Later when the English persuaded education to understand and execute God s will. Powhatan to give Pocahontas to them as a as they established their colonies throughout. hostage her gentleness intelligence and beauty New England. impressed the English and in 1614 she married The Puritan definition of good writing was that. John Rolfe an English gentleman The marriage which brought home a full awareness of the im. initiated an eight year peace between the col portance of worshipping God and of the spiritual. onists and the Indians ensuring the survival of dangers that the soul faced on Earth Puritan. the struggling new colony style varied enormously from complex meta. In the 17th century pirates adventurers and physical poetry to homely journals and crushing. explorers opened the way to a second wave of ly pedantic religious history Whatever the style. permanent colonists bringing their wives chil or genre certain themes remained constant Life. dren farm implements and craftsmen s tools was seen as a test failure led to eternal damna. The early literature of exploration made up of tion and hellfire and success to heavenly bliss. diaries letters travel journals ships logs and This world was an arena of constant. EARLY AMERICAN AND COLONIAL PERIOD TO 1776 merican literature begins with the orally transmitted myths legends tales and lyrics always songs of Indian cultures

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