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Copyright 2017 CNA, 3003 Washington Boulevard Arlington Virginia 22201. www cna org,The Story of CNA,Civilian Scientists in. War and Peace,Don Boroughs,It is hoped that operations research in. peacetime fields will be carried on in,the next few years to investigate how. this aspect of science can be as,valuable in peace as in war.
Philip Morse and George Kimball,Methods of Operations Research. Bringing Scientists to the Fight 1,Vital in War Valued in Peace 9. On Land and Sea in Korea 15,The Cold War and the Creation of the Center. for Naval Analyses 22,Protecting Aircrews in Vietnam 29. Seeing through the Cold War 33,The Era of Independence Begins 48.
A New CNA for a New Century 59,The Long and the Short of It 68. References 72,Acknowledgements,Many current and former CNA employees have. generously given of their time to share with me their. stories in person on the phone and by email, of their years at this organization Some of them are. not mentioned by name in the short history that, follows but all helped to inform the whole picture. In alphabetical order I would like to thank,Lyntis Beard John Bentrup David Broyles Linda.
Cavalluzzo Carey Carter David Deisbeck Phil,DePoy Brad Dismukes Christine Fox Mark Geis. Monica Giovachino Marjorie Greene Lee Gunn,Christopher Jehn Jim Jondrow Greg Kaminski. Floyd Ken Kennedy Mark Lewellyn Jonathan,Markus Brian McCue Michael McDevitt Ed. McGrady Katherine McGrady Ed Michlovich Igor,Mikolic Torreira Bill Morgan Robert Murray Jamil. Nakhleh Brad Ng Charles Nickerson Bruce Powers,Aline Quester James Stewart Harvey Spivack Nancy.
Spruill Peter Swartz Fred Thompson Eric Trabert,Jim Wilson and Teresa Yung. And thanks to Christine LaPaille for suggesting,that I write this short history to Michelle. McSweeney for editing to Michele Jachimczuk, for all of her dedicated work on the layout and to. Sharay Bennett for the cover,Bringing Scientists to the Fight. In the first half of 1942 the Atlantic seaboard,of North America came under an attack unlike.
any the coast had seen before German U boats,prowled shipping lanes from Newfoundland to. the Caribbean with impunity In six months those,submarines sent more than 400 ships to the ocean. floor U boats cruised so close to the mainland that. they could use the lights of New York and Boston,to silhouette their targets Homes along the Outer. Banks of North Carolina rattled as torpedoes,exploded against American freighters. A physics professor from the Massachusetts Institute. of Technology also felt the U boat threat up close. In March of that year Philip Morse rode the ferry,from Delaware to Newport News Virginia and was.
taken aback to see a struggling tanker its bow torn. The Story of CNA,open by a German torpedo He had spent several. months trying to use his expertise in acoustics,to develop technology for the war effort but had. grown frustrated with the way civilian scientists,were pigeonholed by the military He knew that. science could also address tactics operations and, strategy but officers refused to discuss such secrets. with academics Morse later recalled that as he,gazed upon the torpedo victim I wondered then.
who was analyzing the crucial U boat threat, Actually no one in the U S government or scientific. community had been assigned such an analysis That,would soon change Just days later the 38 year old. physicist was summoned to see Capt Wilder Baker,commander of the newly formed Antisubmarine. Warfare Unit of the Atlantic Fleet The no nonsense. officer was desperate to break with tradition and,bring to the fight a team of outstanding men. experienced in utilizing the abstract as well as the. material tools of science in solving such problems. It was a meeting that would help change the course. of the war On April 1 1942 Philip Morse reported, to the First Naval District headquarters in Boston.
and began the task of assembling Group M,In the following 75 years the organization that. he founded would grow and evolve into the,independent research organization CNA Through. three quarters of a century the name on the,letterhead would change many times See box p 5. 1942 1945 Bringing Scientists to the Fight,as would the group s academic sponsors See box. p 12 And the range of research topics continually,expanded from a pure focus on antisubmarine.
warfare in 1942 to all elements of Navy and Marine. Corps operations and later to such civilian interests. as health education justice and security CNA, today advises military federal state and city leaders. from the Pentagon to Pensacola, Still after 75 years of evolution the core elements of. CNA research would be immediately recognizable, to Morse Success in solving problems still depends. upon analysts getting close to the data often by,gathering it themselves Researchers still develop. theories that must be rigorously tested with,quantitative data whenever possible And they.
continue to maintain the independence of their, analyses while working side by side with those who. will benefit from their solutions The story of CNA. is one of both change and constancy The mission,shifts with the needs of the nation The approach. never wavers,Already in the formative year of 1942 Morse and. his fellow scientists shaped those essential processes. that would guide CNA for the next 75 years When,the emerging team of three scientists was shown. to a roomful of reports from unsuccessful U boat,hunters with the expectation that this would.
keep them busy for weeks the analysts glanced, at just a handful As physicists and mathematicians. The Story of CNA,what they wanted rather was a week to think. about the problem of antisubmarine warfare and,to come up with a theory The resulting theory. of search would be refined into a cornerstone of, naval strategy that would be used for decades They. called their science a new field on this side of the. Atlantic operations research and its starting, place would always be a theory that could be tested.
quantitatively against data, But what data Returning to the sub hunters archive. they saw that the haphazard reports were useless to. them Search theory could maximize the number of, U boat targets found by recommending flight patterns. altitudes and plane spacing but only if they could be. certain of the precise spotting range of planes under. a variety of conditions We believed our theory we, didn t believe the reports and we wanted more data. recalled Morse We wanted to get as close as possible. to the operation we were studying,Within a month Morse had assembled seven. scientists into the Antisubmarine Warfare,Operations Research Group ASWORG enough.
to propose the heretical idea of sending several, of these civilians to Navy sub hunting bases Facing. resistance the headstrong professor held his ground. until Capt Baker relented The five analysts who, headed out into the field by July were the vanguard. for future generations of CNA analysts who have,ventured out to the source of the data whether in. 1942 1945 Bringing Scientists to the Fight,the inner cities of America or the deserts of the. Middle East CNA field representatives have stood,at the side of military officers in every war and.
operation since and dozens continue to serve each,year on sea and shore. Despite the skepticism that greeted the tweedy, scientists the data they were able to gather working. with pilots on the ground and in the air refined, the theory of search into plans that significantly. increased the number of U boat sightings The,group s mathematical work on search was so. valuable to the military that the resulting book,Search and Screening was not declassified until.
more than a decade after the war,Search was only step one in the equation just 2. percent of attacks on U boats scored a kill in the. first half of the year Although U boats tried to,dive as planes approached ASWORG analysts. questioned the value of dropping depth charges, to explode as deep as 75 feet British depth charges. Expanding Missions New Names,ASWORG Anti Submarine Warfare. Operations Research Group 1942,ORG Operations Research Group 1944.
OEG Operations Evaluation Group 1945,Center for Naval Analyses 1962. the Caribbean with impunity In six months those submarines sent more than 400 ships to the ocean floor U boats cruised so close to the mainland that they could use the lights of New York and Boston to silhouette their targets Homes along the Outer Banks of North Carolina rattled as torpedoes exploded against American freighters A physics professor from the Massachusetts Institute of

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